The Parent Empowerment and Efficacy Measure (PEEM): a tool for strengthening the accountability and effectiveness of family support services

Journal article citation:
Australian Social Work, 67(3), 2014, pp.405-418.
Taylor and Francis

This article describes the development, validity, and reliability of the Parent Empowerment and Efficacy Measure (PEEM). Development was guided by theory and by challenges faced by Pathways to Prevention family support staff who required a short, practical, and reliable measure of parent empowerment. The measure's psychometric properties were tested using data from 866 parents of children aged 5 to 12, living in high to low socioeconomic status areas. The instrument measured parents confidence to be a good parent and their capacity to connect with informal and formal networks (ie when to seek help and how to access support and the ability to be part of a mutually supportive community or social network). Principal factor analysis revealed a strong general dimension with high internal consistency that correlated at 0.60 or more with three validation measures, as well as the existence of two hypothesised subfactors: efficacy to parent and efficacy to connect. Test–retest reliability (n = 200) was 0.84. The study concludes that PEEM exhibits excellent convergent and concurrent validity and is a reliable tool for use in planning services, monitoring participant progress, and evaluating program effectiveness. (Edited publisher abstract)

Subject terms:
prevention, empowerment, parenting, outcomes, evidence-based practice, family support, social networks, participation, instruments;
Content type:
Journal home page
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