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Journal article

The relationship between compulsive exercise and emotion regulation in adolescents

Authors:
GOODWIN Huw, HAYCRAFT Emma, MEYER Caroline
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Health Psychology, 17(4), November 2012, pp.699-710.
Publisher:
British Psychological Society

Compulsive exercise is thought to be an effective strategy to regulate emotions, yet has never been studied in adolescents. This study investigated the cross-sectional association between emotion regulation and compulsive exercise attitudes in adolescents. A sample of 1,630 adolescent boys and girls, aged 12 to 14 years, from schools across the United Kingdom, completed self-report measures of compulsive exercise, emotion regulation, and disordered eating attitudes, as part of ongoing research into exercise and eating attitudes in adolescents. Findings revealed that compulsive exercise was significantly associated with emotion regulation, after controlling for disordered eating attitudes. Among boys, compulsive exercise was associated with internal functional, internal dysfunctional, and external functional emotion regulation strategies. In girls, internal functional and internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies predicted compulsive exercise. In conclusion, adolescents’ compulsivity towards exercise was positively associated with different emotion regulation strategies. Implications for future research are discussed.

Journal article

Technology and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: an interactive self-help website for OCD

Authors:
MCINGVALE Elizabeth, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Technology in Human Services, 30(2), April 2012, pp.128-136.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological illness characterised by unwanted thoughts and/or images followed by repetitive rituals. OCD is a manageable illness when proper interventions are utilised, but treatment for OCD is limited due to the lack of adequately trained professionals and the high costs of treatment. To address the treatment gap, an online, interactive self-help website was developed for those living with OCD without access to an effective intervention. The OCD Challenge website is based on the principles of exposure and response prevention (ERP), and utilises the techniques employed in ERP to teach users how to apply them to help decrease their OCD symptoms. This paper explores the development of the OCD Challenge website and future implications of its use.

Journal article

Body dysmorphic disorder and Its significance to social work

Author:
WOLRICH Meredith K.
Journal article citation:
Clinical Social Work Journal, 39(1), 2011, pp.101-110.
Publisher:
Springer
Place of publication:
New York

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and often severe psychiatric disorder in which an individual has an excessive preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in his or her appearance. This article informs social workers about the seriousness, prevalence and treatment challenges of BDD, and highlights its significance to social work practice and research. A clinical case presentation illustrates an example of how BDD may present in practice and the value of addressing it from a biopsychosocial perspective.

Journal article

Attachment to people and to objects in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory comparison of hoarders and non-hoarders

Authors:
NEDELISKY Anna, STEELE Miriam
Journal article citation:
Attachment and Human Development, 11(4), July 2009, pp.365-383.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

In this study, the researchers assessed attachment to people and to inanimate objects in 30 individuals from New York with obsessive-compulsive disorder, about half of whom were compulsive hoarders. Attachment was assessed using standard measures of interpersonal attachment, which were adapted to evaluate inanimate object attachment as well. The results data indicated that individuals who hoard report significantly higher levels of emotional over involvement with inanimate objects and lower levels of emotional over involvement with people than non-hoarders, and that gender had a significant effect in terms of interpersonal attachment ratings with female participants in general having significantly higher mean ratings of interpersonal attachment insecurity than male participants regardless of obsessive compulsive disorder symptomatology. Hoarders did not report significantly higher levels of overall security attachment to inanimate objects than non-hoarders, and fear of losing an inanimate object was found to significantly predict hoarding severity.

Journal article

National service for adolescents and adults with severe obsessive-compulsive and body dysmorphic disorders

Authors:
DRUMMOND L. M., et al
Journal article citation:
Psychiatric Bulletin, 32(9), September 2008, pp.333-326.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

National guidelines for the assessment and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder were published in 2005 by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Local services are unable to treat a small but significant number of the most severely ill patients successfully, and the guidelines recommend that such patients should have access to highly specialised care. From 1 April 2007, the Department of Health decided to centrally fund treatment services for severe, chronic, refractory OCD and BDD. The authors describe a new National Service for Refractory OCD; its rationale, treatments offered, referral criteria and expected clinical outcomes. initial results from one centre show an average 42% reduction in OCD symptoms at the end of treatment. The operational challenges and potential generalisability of this model of healthcare delivery are discussed. The authors present a summary of the progress made so far in establishing a new, coherent National Service for Refractory OCD, 18 months after the NICE guideline was published. The aim of the paper is to educate clinicians about the service and describe its rationale, treatments offered, referral criteria and expected clinical outcomes.

Journal article

Community model in treating obsessive-compulsive and body dysmorphic disorders

Authors:
DRUMMOND L. M., et al
Journal article citation:
Psychiatric Bulletin, 32(9), September 2008, pp.336-340.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

In November 2005, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence published guidelines for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder. These guidelines incorporated a stepped care approach with different interventions advised throughout the patient pathway. South West London and St George’s Mental Health NHS Trust devised a system of expert clinicians with special expertise in OCD/body dysmorphic disorder to help deliver this model of care. To aid the delivery of service it was decided to operationalise the definitions of severity of OCD/body dysmorphic disorder at each of the stepped-care levels. Examples are given as to how this has been applied in practice. Outcome is presented in terms of clinical hours in the first year of operation. In total, 108 patients were referred to the service in the first year. Many of these patients were treated by offering advice and support and joint working with the community mental health team and psychotherapy in primary care teams who had referred. Sixty-eight patients were treated by a member of the specialist service alone and 57 of these suffered from severe OCD. Outcome data from these 57 patients is presented using an intention-to-treat paradigm. They showed a clinically and statistically significant reduction in OCD symptoms after 24 weeks of cognitive-behavioural therapy comprising graded exposure and self-imposed response prevention. The mean Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score dropped from 28 (severe OCD) to 19 (considerable OCD). Depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory also decreased by an average 24% over the same period.

Journal article

Brain activation in paediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder during tasks of inhibitory control

Authors:
WOOLEY James, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 192(1), January 2008, pp.25-31.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) may be related to a dysfunction in frontostriatal pathways mediating inhibitory control. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has tested this in children. Event-related fMRI was used to compare brain activation in 10 adolescent boys with OCD with that of 9 matched controls during three different tasks of inhibitory control. During a ‘stop’ task, participants with OCD showed reduced activation in right orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia; inhibition failure elicited mesial frontal underactivation. Task switching and interference inhibition were associated with attenuated activation in frontal, temporoparietal and cerebellar regions. These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that paediatric OCD is characterised by a dysregulation of frontostriatothalamic brain regions necessary for motor inhibition, and also demonstrate dysfunction of temporoparietal and frontocerebellar attention networks during more cognitive forms of inhibition.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Screening young people for obsessive–compulsive disorder

Authors:
UHER Rudolf, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(10), October 2007, pp.353-354.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people is under recognised and under treated. Simple screening tools suitable for general practice and community services are needed. The authors created a seven-item self-report Short OCD Screener (SOCS) and administered it to young people aged 11–15 years, including 116 patients with OCD, 181 healthy community controls and 33 young people with other psychiatric diagnoses. The SOCS has excellent sensitivity of 0.97 (95% CI 0.91–0.98) to detect OCD cases. Its specificity is good in children without psychiatric diagnoses, but low in a psychiatric sample. The SOCS is a screening tool suitable for community but not specialist settings.

Journal article

Sexual homicide: differentiating catathymic and compulsive murders

Author:
SCLESINGER Louis B.
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(2), March 2007, pp.242-256.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Difficulties encountered in the study of sexual homicide are reviewed along with a discussion of two types of sexual murder—catathymic and compulsive. Historical, behavioral, psychodynamic, and prognostic factors are presented, as well as a discussion of differential diagnosis. Forensic issues and implications for intervention, prevention, and investigation are also considered.

Book

Obsessive compulsive disorder: practical, tried and tested strategies to overcome OCD

Authors:
TOATES Frederick, COSCHUG-TOATES Olga
Publisher:
Class Publishing
Publication year:
2002
Pagination:
267p.
Place of publication:
London
Edition:
2nd ed.

This is a self-help book written principally by a distinguished experimental psychologist who suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is divided into four main parts. The first is an account of the life of the primary author, who displayed obsessive traits in early life and developed OCD at 30 years of age. The second is an account of the professional services offered by clinical psychology and psychiatry. The third is an account of the lives and thoughts of famous people who have suffered OCD, and the last is self-help advice.

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