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Journal article

Lived employment experiences of college students and graduates with physical disabilities in the United States

Authors:
KIM Mikyong Minsun, WILLIAMS Brenda C.
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 27(6), 2012, pp.837-852.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

While persons with disabilities are legislatively protected in the USA, they continue to experience high rates of unemployment. The aim of this phenomenological study was to focus on the employment experiences of college students with physical disabilities seeking employment opportunities after graduation in the USA. Data was collected using semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 8 college seniors and recent graduates with physical disabilities at an urban university located in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. The findings revealed 6 major thematic areas: disability and impairment; accessibility; reasonable accommodations; discrimination; barriers and hindrances; and graduate or professional education. All the participants noted that workplace accessibility and accommodation are major concerns when they apply for a job. Their viewpoints or attitudes are diverse and range from pain to pride and from experiences of denied accommodation to support. Their major areas of concern are their own marketable skills and credentials as well as accessibility and accommodation in workplaces. Continued education beyond the baccalaureate is a priority for many participants rather than an immediate transition to work, and the Office of Disability and professors were considered important advising agencies.

Journal article

Service dogs and people with physical disabilities partnerships: a systematic review

Authors:
WINKLE Melissa;, CROWE Terry K.;, HENDRIX Ingrid;
Journal article citation:
Occupational Therapy International, 19(1), 2012, pp.54-66.

Some promising social, functional and psychological benefits were identified as possibly being associated with service dog ownership. However the evidence from the twelve studies included in this review was limited by poor study quality. Areas for further investigation are outlined, and the potential for occupational therapists to become involved in assisting clients before during and after service dog placement is discussed.

Journal article

Depression and frailty in later life: a synthetic review

Authors:
MEZUK Briana, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(9), September 2012, pp.879-892.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Frailty is defined as a state or indication of being vulnerable to declining health in later life. Depression in later life is predictive of many of the same kinds of outcomes as frailty, including cognitive impairment, disability, fracture, and mortality. The aim of this review was to explore the conceptual and empirical interrelationships between depression and frailty among older adults. A literature search was conducted using PubMed for publications through to 2010. Reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report and abstracted information on study design, sample characteristics, and key findings. Of these abstracted articles, 39 met the inclusion criteria. The findings from both cross-sectional and cohort studies indicated that frailty, its components, and functional impairment are risk factors for depression. Although cross-sectional studies indicated a positive association between depression and frailty, findings from cohort studies were less consistent. The majority of studies included only women and non-Hispanic Whites. None used diagnostic measures of depression or considered antidepressant use in the design or analysis of the studies.

Journal article

Examining the evidence for interventions with children with developmental coordination disorder

Author:
ARMSTRONG Dorothy
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(12), December 2012, pp.532-540.
Publisher:
College of Occupational Therapists

This critical review of the literature examines the evidence for the effectiveness of a selection of interventions for improving occupational performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The search criteria included: children whose primary diagnosis was DCD; research into the effectiveness of an intervention or interventions; interventions that fit with occupational therapy practice (although not necessarily carried out by an occupational therapist); published in peer-reviewed journals; published since 1984; and available in English. The following databases were included: EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC. All articles retrieved were screened for relevance and their reference lists scanned. Nineteen articles were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Of the approaches reviewed, the evidence points to interventions that use client’s activities of daily living as part of the intervention, such as CO-OP (Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance), as being most effective in improving occupational performance. Other approaches reviewed include; sensory integration, servomotor task training, goal-orientated group intervention, exercise programmes, and compensatory approaches.

Book Full text available online for free

The future need for social care services for adults with disabilities in England 2012-30

Author:
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH RESEARCH. School for Social Care Research
Publisher:
NIHR School for Social Care Research
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
4
Place of publication:
London

Researchers at the Centre for Disability Research (CedR), Lancaster University collected information about the assessed level of eligibility for samples of children aged 14-16 identified as having special educational needs (SEN), and explored the relationship between SEN and disability. The aim was to estimate changes in the need for social care services for adults with disabilities in England between 2012 and 2030. The project builds on and extends the research team’s previous work on estimating future need for social care services among adults with learning disabilities over the time period. This summary of the research notes that estimates are based on “need” rather than “demand”; and that changes in demand are likely to outstrip changes in need because of the reduction in the capacity of informal support networks to provide care. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

‘I know that aside from my arms I’m normal’: negotiating the incoherencies of a ‘VACTERL identity’

Author:
KALFA Ora
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 27(1), 2012, pp.65-79.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

VACTERL Association, a medical diagnosis that represents a broad range of characteristics, affects the following body systems: vertebrae; anal; cardiovascular; trachea; esophageal; renal and radial; and limb. A person with three or more problems in any combination may be recognized as fitting in the VACTERL Association. Auditory, growth, sex, and reproductive characteristics are often present as well. Thus far, VACTERL has only been examined within the medical system, and, within that framework, it has become identified as an anomaly and ‘disability,’ leaving the embodied experiential realities of individuals who live with it unexplored. This paper reports on a qualitative study with eight self-identified women with VACTERL Association. All participants were from across the North American continent. The study provides an introduction to the experiences of these women and provides an exploration of the elements and processes of identity negotiation, with particular focus on the intersection between gender and ability. As well, the impact of a medical label as it affects identity formation is examined. Implications for future research are presented.

Digital Media

Defining excellence: excellence in domiciliary care

Author:
SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE
Publisher:
Social Care Institute for Excellence
Publication year:
2012
Place of publication:
London

Service users get together with a social care academic and a leader in the home care sector to discuss how excellence can be achieved in domiciliary care.  We see examples of excellence in support offered to older people, people with learning disabilities and people with physical disabilities in their own homes.  Much of the focus is on the relationship between staff members and the people they support because getting that right is fundamental to excellent care. This film has now been revised and is available under the new title 'Quality in social care: achieving excellence in home care'.

Book

The new politics of disablement

Authors:
OLIVER Michael, BARNES Colin
Publisher:
Palgrave Macmillan
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
192p.
Place of publication:
Basingstoke
Edition:
2nd ed.

The purpose of this second edition is to continue the process of developing a social theory of disability in response to a capitalist society faced with globalisation, financial instability and lower public expenditure. This process is located within the experience of disabled people and their attempts not only to redefine disability  but  also  to  construct  a  political  movement  with  the  potential  to contribute to the restructuring  of a more equitable and just society fit for all, regardless of the nature and severity of impairment, age, gender, race or sexual preference.  The book locates disability within the context  of  society  and  social  organisations  with  particular  emphasis  on  the working of the economy, politics and culture. Attention centres on the ways in  which  both  impairment  and  disability  are  ‘produced’  as  individual  and medical problems within capitalist society at both the national and international levels.

Journal article

The effectiveness of occupational therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: a review of the qualitative literature

Authors:
MORGAN Ruth, LONG Tony
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(1), January 2012, pp.10-18.
Publisher:
College of Occupational Therapists

The aim of this review was to further evidence-based practice by identifying motor interventions judged to be effective by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and their parents. Six databases were searched for qualitative studies with school-age children with DCD and their parents in order to understand which occupational therapy interventions are most effective for decreasing core symptoms and improving occupational outcomes. The Model of Human Occupation was used to structure the discussion and to illustrate how a model can be used to guide the therapeutic reasoning process about future intervention decisions. For many families, intervention that addressed everyday occupations and the social consequences for children with DCD was of the utmost importance. Both child-centred and parent-centred interventions for DCD were valued but allowing children to be active in goal setting was considered vital. Most parents wanted to maximise their child's social participation and motivation whereas children were more concerned about their ability to engage in self-care and play activities. The authors conclude that there is a need for practitioners to incorporate the priorities of parents and children in order to optimise the outcomes of intervention. Parental and teacher education was highly valued by parents to help manage the uncertainty and worry associated with raising a child with DCD.

Journal article

Reaching the ‘hard to reach’: strategies to recruit black and minority ethnic service users with rare long-term neurological conditions

Authors:
HOPPITT Thomas, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15(6), 2012, pp.485-495.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Little is known about health and social care experiences of patients with rare long-term neurological conditions such as Huntington’s disease, motor neuron disease, Charcot Marie Tooth disease, dominantly inherited ataxias, progressive supranuclear palsy, post polio syndrome and multiple system atrophy. Added to this black and minority ethnic service users have historically been described as ‘hard to reach’ for research. Evidence suggests that a variety of recruitment methods need to be used if this situation is to change. This study employed a range of recruitment strategies to involve patients in one-to-one interviews about their experiences of health and social care. The recruiter was of Indian origin. Strategies included community (places of worship, local media, voluntary organisations), clinically based strategies and snowballing. Fifteen participants were recruited altogether, but ultimately all came from neurology clinics and disease-specific charities. The authors conclude that despite community-based strategies generating interest and a willingness to be involved, the rare nature of these conditions resulted in a lack of recruits from these strategies. It is suggested that stigma, especially with regard to genetic conditions may have played a part. Researchers may need to plan and prioritise strategies carefully in order to maximise recruitment and utilise resources efficiently dependent on the nature of the research.

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