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Journal article

Biomechanics and prevention of body shape distortion

Authors:
HILL Sarah, GOLDSMITH John
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 15(2), April 2010, pp.15-32.
Publisher:
Emerald

Changes in body shape can happen slowly over long periods of time, and may affect any person who has difficulty moving efficiently. Supporting the body in symmetrical supine lying has been found to protect and restore body shape. Those described as having complex and continuing health care needs or profound and multiple learning disabilities are more likely to be at risk of developing changes in body shape. This article considers patterns of chest distortion and reduction of internal capacity of the abdomen and thorax with key characteristics for those supporting individuals at risk. It describes non-invasive measurement of body symmetry as a relevant outcome measure in the effort to protect body shape, and highlights the consequences for individuals, their families and service providers. Case studies are presented which demonstrate that the body is vulnerable to distortion but also susceptible to restoration as long as the correct biomechanical forces are applied. In conclusion, it is proposed that therapeutic night positioning is an effective intervention which should be made available to those at risk of body shape distortion from an early age.

Journal article

The importance of hope in coping with severe acquired disability

Author:
DORSETT Pat
Journal article citation:
Australian Social Work, 63(1), March 2010, pp.83-102.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Traditionally, adjustment to a serious injury such as spinal cord injury has been conceptualised as staged grieving process. Hope, in this tradition, is commonly defined as denial and considered counterproductive to positive adjustment. However, these concepts are challenged by the observation that hope is a common expression even in the face of extremely confronting physical, social and environmental challenges following spinal cord injury. This paper presents qualitative data about the role of hope from the perspective of the person with spinal cord injury and considers the theoretical and clinical aspects of hope in the coping process. The data presented are a subset of data from a 10 year longitudinal study of a sample of 46 people with spinal cord injury. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted at discharge from hospital, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months post-discharge and again at 10 years post discharge. Results showed that 73% of the participants identified hope as an essential factor that helped them cope following their injury. Three main foci of hope emerged from the data set: hope for a complete recovery; hope for a cure; and hope for a satisfying quality of life. Hope emerged as a strong theme in the overall adjustment and coping process. Clinical implications for working with people who sustain spinal cord injury are discussed. It is recommended that interventions that support and facilitate hope need to be developed and tested.

Journal article

Growing up with a sibling with dwarfism: perceptions of adult non-dwarf siblings

Authors:
GUSE Tharina, HARVEY Clare
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 25(3), 2010, pp.387-401.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

This qualitative study was to explore adult non‐dwarf siblings' experiences of growing up with siblings with a skeletal dysplasia. Thematic analyses of semi‐structured interviews with four adult non‐dwarf siblings confirmed both negative and positive effects. These effects were evident in childhood and continued into adulthood. For the adults who took part in this study, the positive effects seemed to be more profound.

Book Full text available online for free

Music therapy for acquired brain injury (review)

Authors:
BRADT J., et al
Publisher:
John Wiley and Sons
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
42p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Chichester

Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in problems with movement, language, sensation, thinking or emotion and therefore severely reduce a survivor’s quality of life. Music therapy has been employed to help recover lost functions and to prevent depression. This systematic review compared music therapy with standard care versus standard care alone or standard care combined with other therapies on; gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, social skills, pain, behavioural outcomes, activities of daily living and adverse events. The literature was searched exhaustively, including hand searching of key journals and contact with experts in the field. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data from the seven studies selected for inclusion (184 participants) . The results suggest that rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may improve gait in stroke patients, including gait velocity, cadence, stride length and gait symmetry. These results were based on two studies that received a low risk of bias score. There were insufficient data to examine the effect of music therapy on other outcomes. The reviewers conclude that RAS may improve gait in people with stroke but more RCTs are needed before recommendations can be made for clinical practice. Further research is needed to examine the effects of music therapy on other outcomes in people with ABI.

Journal article

Systematic review of early intervention programmes for children from birth to nine years who have a physical disability

Authors:
ZIVIANI Jenny, et al
Journal article citation:
Australian Occupational Therapy, 57(4), August 2010, pp.210-223.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Ten early intervention programmes with a wide range of intervention types, participants, and outcome measures, were included in this systematic review. A number of positive outcomes, both child-related and family-related, were reported but further analysis was prevented due to methodological limitations. The need for more, well-designed studies that include baseline data, long-term follow-up and standardised outcome measures is emphasised.

Book

Understanding dyspraxia: a guide for parents and teachers

Author:
BOON Maureen
Publisher:
Jessica Kingsley
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
141p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
London
Edition:
2nd ed.

The author draws upon her 30 years’ experience of working with children with movement disorders to provide clear and positive answers to questions commonly asked by parents and teachers about dyspraxia. This fully-updated second edition of her book has been revised to reflect current practice and developments. The characteristics of dyspraxia and assessment procedures are explained followed by discussion of what can be done to help. New material has been added on concepts such as physical literacy and whether the incidence of dyspraxia has increased. Terminology is reviewed and the therapeutic options considered. New case studies and photographs are used to illustrate successful interventions in practice. Appendices provide details of useful publications, programmes, equipment and organisations. Chapters include: What is dyspraxia?; What causes dyspraxia?; What are children with dyspraxia like?; How are children with dyspraxia identified?; How are children with dyspraxia assessed?; Interventions in school: primary or elementary school; Interventions in school: secondary, middle or high school and further education; How Can Parents Help Their Child?; Therapeutic Interventions; and Leaving school, further education, careers and adult life.

Journal article

An accessible website to boost independence in young people with physical impairments

Authors:
JAMES Carrie, DRINAN Kathie, HYKIN Julie
Journal article citation:
Nursing Times, 30.11.10, 2010, pp.15-16.
Publisher:
Nursing Times

The Queen's Nursing Institute Fund for Innovation awarded the health transition team in Walsall £7,500 to fund their transitional website project, The website supports young people with physical impairments to access a wide range of information independently. This article offers information to those who wish to improve practice and work innovatively.

Journal article

A preliminary study of some broad disability related themes within the Edinburgh Festival Fringe

Author:
MARTIN Nicola
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 25(5), August 2010, pp.539-549.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

Disablism is defined as discriminatory, oppressive or abusive behaviour arising from the belief that disabled people are inferior to others. In this article the author considers some broad disability related themes (by disabled performers and by others) focusing on her personal experience of the 2008 Edinburgh Festival Fringe. Comedy is covered in most detail with particular focus on one performer. Reference is also made to other performance categories, such as drama, and to some influences from beyond the fringe. Consideration is given to whether disabled comedians can be disablist and whether disability equality legislation is impacting what happens in performances. Disablism, othering and freak show genre were amongst the themes which emerged. From the perspective of a disability aware audience member the author found that unreconstructed disablism in comedy appeared to be fairly widespread within the fringe, mainly manifesting itself via the idle use of othering language. In addition to this physical access to venues was very poor.

Journal article

Able Radio

Author:
SYMONS Rob
Journal article citation:
Llais, 96, Summer 2010, pp.3-6.
Publisher:
Learning Disability Wales

This article tells of the vision, funding, development and operation of the disability focused radio station, known initially as the Scope Cwmbran Radio Pilot, which broadcast request and information programmes to service users of the Cwmbran Scope buildings. The pilot evolved into Able Radio, with financing from Links-Wales and moved to the former Ty Nant Ddu day centre. Training was provided for volunteers with sensory impairments, physical disabilities and mental health problems and Able Radio went on air 9th February 2009.  A second studio has also been funded. The Big Lottery will art-fund a station manager and assistant over the next 3 years.

Journal article

Exploring occupational adaptation through the lives of women with multiple sclerosis

Authors:
CAHILL Mairead, CONNOLLY Deirdre, STAPLETON Tadhg
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73(3), March 2010, pp.106-115.
Publisher:
College of Occupational Therapists

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects people's physical capabilities and the lives of people with MS are constantly changing (Finlayson et al 2005), yet how people adapt to the disease from an occupational perspective has received little attention. This study explored the occupational adaptation of women with MS. Seven women with MS were recruited from the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland. Each participant completed the Modified Interest Checklist (Kielhofner and Neville 1983), the Role Checklist (Oakley et al 1985) and the Occupational Questionnaire (Smith et al 1986). Qualitative data were also collected, using the Occupational Performance History Interview - II (Kielhofner et al 2004). Three main themes emerged: the impact of MS on (i) performance capacity, (ii) roles and (iii) interests. The participants adapted by performing interests and roles differently and developing new meaningful interests and roles that were congruent with their performance capacity. The findings highlight the importance of having an understanding of the impact of different types of MS on the occupational adaptation process. A greater understanding will facilitate occupational therapists in enabling people with MS to adapt to their condition by engaging in meaningful occupations throughout the lifespan.

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