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Journal article

Disability and the anti-obesity offensive

Author:
APHRAMOR Lucy
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 24(7), December 2009, pp.897-909.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

This paper expands a discussion, begun 10 years ago by Charlotte Cooper, which explored some of the resonances and differences between struggles for disability and fat rights and argued that fatness is a disability issue. The writer asks why, if disability is understood as the interplay of aspects of impairment and social exclusion premised on medicalised assumptions of pathology or deficiency, is fatness, invariably diagnosed as overweight or obesity and read as the disease obesity, not disabling. She aims here to open up the debate and “stem the tide of damaging orthodoxy” in anti-obesity discourse and practice. Some ways in which fat people are oppressed by the same ideological practices and values that oppress (other) disabled people are explored. Fatness has typically been excluded from consideration by disability scholars but here the alternative theories of fatness are informed by insights from disability studies. In conclusion, the author urges discussion on theoretical perspectives of disability that embrace fatness and sees this as a prerequisite to developing strategies that enhance both disability and fat rights.

Journal article

When work and satisfaction with life do not go hand in hand: health barriers and personal resources in the participation of people with chronic physical disabilities

Authors:
van CAMPEN Cretien, CARDOL Mieke
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 69(1), July 2009, pp.56-60.
Publisher:
Elsevier

People with chronic physical disabilities participate less in both paid and voluntary work and are less satisfied with their lives than people without health problems. Governments and scientists have suggested that participation in employment is the main road to well-being. National survey data was on the participation in work and satisfaction with life was analysed, comparing people with a chronic illness and a physical disability (n = 603) to people with a chronic illness but without a physical disability (n = 1199) and the general population (n = 6128) in the Netherlands. The results show that the relationship between happiness and work is different for people with a chronic illness and a physical disability, as compared to the other two populations. Fewer people with a chronic illness and disability were categorized as ‘satisfied people with work’ (i.e. participating in work and satisfied with their life), while most people belonged to a group of ‘satisfied people without work’ and, surprisingly, not to the expected group of ‘dissatisfied people without work’. In order to explain this exceptional distribution the authors modelled satisfied participation in work as an outcome of a balance between personal resources and barriers. By means of discriminant regression analysis, the severity of motor disability was identified as the main barrier, and education level and age, as the main resource factors that distinguish between ‘satisfied people with work’ and others among the group of people with a chronic illness and a physical disability.

Journal article

Age and disability: explaining the wage differential

Authors:
GANNON Brendon, MUNLEY Margaret
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 69(1), July 2009, pp.47-55.
Publisher:
Elsevier

This paper estimates the level of explained and unexplained factors that contribute to the wage gap between workers with and without disabilities, providing benchmark estimates for Ireland. It separates out the confounding impact of productivity differences between disabled and non-disabled, by comparing wage differentials across three groups, disabled with limitations, disabled without limitations and non-disabled. Furthermore, data are analysed for the years 1995–2001 and two sub-samples pre and post 1998 allow us to decompose wage differentials before and after the Employment Equality Act 1998. Results are comparable to those of the UK and the unexplained component (upper bound of discrimination) is lower once we control for productivity differences. The lower bound level depends on the contribution of unobserved effects and the validity of the selection component in the decomposition model.

Book

Defying disability: the lives and legacies of nine disabled leaders

Author:
WILKINSON Mary
Publisher:
Jessica Kingsley
Publication year:
2009
Pagination:
224p.
Place of publication:
London

This book describes nine disabled people who, by force of personality and concrete achievement, are said to have made us  think differently about disability, not hiding their impairment, like Franklin D. Roosevelt, or brushing it aside, like David Blunkett, but acknowledging it as part of them: Bert Massie, public servant; Jack Ashley, politician; Rachel Hurst, activist/campaigner; Tom Shakespeare, academic; Phil Friend, entrepreneur; Peter White, broadcaster; Mat Fraser, actor/performer; Andrew Lee, activist/campaigner; and Tanni Grey-Thompson, athlete, ending with a chapter asking what they have in common, where they differ, and their overall impact.

Book Full text available online for free

Wheelchair and seating services modernisation: action plan

Author:
NHS SCOTLAND
Publisher:
Scotland. Scottish Government
Publication year:
2009
Pagination:
33p.
Place of publication:
Edinburgh

This plan lays out the direction of travel for the Wheelchair and Seating Services (WSS) in Scotland over a 3-year period. It forms a programme of service modernisation, introducing service and practice change in keeping with patient-centred approaches. These are core to the Scottish Government’s commitment to developing health services with patients and service users as partners.

Journal article

Independence pays: a cost and resource analysis of direct payments in two local authorities

Authors:
STAINTON Tim, BOYCE Steve, PHILLIPS Ceri J.
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 24(2), March 2009, pp.161-172.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

Although there is an increasing amount of literature on direct payments (DP), to date there have been few studies which have examined in any detail the costs and resources associated with them. This paper presents findings from a two year study conducted in two Welsh local authorities that jointly fund an Independent Living Support (ILS) scheme. The main study was not designed to provide definitive cost comparisons with conventional services, however, cost and resource implications of DP were considered and an analysis to determine comparative costs between DP and traditional services was undertaken. The study notes the difficulty in identifying the true cost of DP and reasonable comparators with traditional services. A set of four case studies are presented comparing actual costs of DP and in-house and independent sector services in the two local authorities studied. The comparison of costs and resources, which did not include significant costs for traditional local authority services but included the cost of the DP support scheme, found that DP was cheaper than traditional in-house service provision and relatively cost neutral when compared with independent sector provision. User satisfaction, however, was significantly greater with DP than traditional service delivery methods. The paper also examines factors which can potentially influence the cost of DP. The study suggests that DP represent a substantial improvement over traditional arrangements from a cost-benefit perspective. There is strong evidence to suggest that greater 'opportunity cost' savings can be anticipated when DP schemes become more fully integrated into policy, practice and procedures.

Journal article

The intersection of disability, diversity, and domestic violence: results of national focus groups

Authors:
LIGHTFOOT Elizabeth, WILLIAMS Oliver
Journal article citation:
Journal of Aggression Maltreatment and Trauma, 18(2), March 2009, pp.133-152.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Data from two national focus groups of 19 key informants (service providers and advocates) are used to explore issues faced by people with physical and sensory disabilities (primarily deafness) in accessing domestic violence services, with particular emphasis on those from minority ethnic groups. The study also looks at the preferences of people of colour when accessing such services, and assesses the cultural competence, disability awareness and domestic violence awareness of domestic violence service providers and disability organisations.

Journal article

Receipt of professional care coordination among families raising children with special health care needs: a multilevel analysis of state policy needs

Authors:
PARISH Susan L., et al
Journal article citation:
Children and Youth Services Review, 31(1), January 2009, pp.63-70.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Data from the 2002 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in the US were analyzed to understand the state-level policies and individual characteristics associated with receipt of professional care coordination by families raising children with special health care needs. Families living in states with more generous State Children's Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP) were more likely to receive professional care coordination. Numerous individual characteristics are associated with receipt of support services. States could likely improve access to support services for these families by expanding SCHIP and implementing targeted measures to help uninsured children, children whose parents do not speak English, those living below 300% of the federal poverty level, and families raising children with the most severe impairments.

Journal article

Is parental coping associated with the level of function in children with physical disabilities?

Authors:
CAVALLO S., et al
Journal article citation:
Child: Care, Health and Development, 35(1), January 2009, pp.33-40.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The objectives of this study are: (1) to describe parental coping in a cohort of children with physical disabilities (PDs); (2) to determine whether the child's level of function is associated with parental coping; and (3) to explore whether socio-demographic factors such as child's age, maternal education and family structure are associated with parental coping. Parents of 150 children with PDs were interviewed after being referred to community rehabilitation services in a Canadian hospital. They answered the following: the Coping Health Inventory for Parents, the Functional Independence Measure for children (WeeFIM) and a study questionnaire that addressed socio-demographic characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association between level of function and other factors and parental coping. Parental coping scores, measured by the Coping Health Inventory for Parents, indicated that the parents in the study found seeking out social support from community resources useful. Parents of children with moderate to severe dysfunction in mobility (WeeFIM) found coping behaviours related to communicating with the healthcare professionals regarding their child's condition useful. Greater perceived usefulness of maintaining social support through community resources was associated with lower maternal education, working parents and two-parent families. These findings underscore the importance of helping parents of children with PDs maintain social support. It is important to help parents understand their child's medical situation, especially those whose children have more severe mobility dysfunction.

Book

Hands on dyspraxia: supporting children and young people with sensory and motor learning challenges

Author:
CHRISTMAS Jill
Publisher:
Speechmark
Publication year:
2009
Pagination:
155p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Milton Keynes

There are two main objectives of this handbook: to provide a simple clear understanding of some of the underlying challenges that children with a dyspraxia profile experience, and to provide easily accessible advice and strategies for support for parents, teachers and allied professionals working with these children. The conditions of dyspraxia and developmental co-ordination disorder are differentiated here as in some children they can be observed as separate conditions; dyspraxia being more sensory-based. The author explains the terminology used in dyspraxia: proprioception, bilateral integration, vestibular, postural, cross lateral and tactile defensiveness. She includes an outline of the impact these issues can have in the classroom and the home. Chapters include; an overview of dyspraxia; sensory integration; eye and hand skills; visual perception; working both sides of the body together; primary or baby reflexes; daily living (self-care) skills; exercises, activity and therapy. Each section of the book is laid out under three main headings: What? definitions and meaning; So What? issues and challenges for the child; Now What?; practical strategies and support.

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