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Book Full text available online for free

Personal assistance for children and adolescents (0-18) with both physical and intellectual impairments

Authors:
MAYO-WILSON Evan, MONTGOMERY Paul, DENNIS Jane
Publisher:
Campbell Collaboration
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
30p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Oslo

This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of personal assistance for children and adolescents with both physical and intellectual impairments, and the impacts of personal assistance on others, compared to other interventions. Personal assistance is defined as paid support of at least 20 hours per week for people with impairments to enable them to participate in mainstream activities. The report focuses and the methodology used in the review;  Electronic databases were searched from 1980 to June 2005; reference lists were checked; 345 experts, organisations, government bodies and charities were contacted in an attempt to locate relevant research. The review identified no studies that met the inclusion criteria.

Book Full text available online for free

Personal assistance for adults (19-64) with physical impairments

Authors:
MAYO-WILSON Evan, MONTGOMERY Paul, DENNIS Jane
Publisher:
Campbell Collaboration
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
36p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Oslo

This systematic review aimed to assesses the effectiveness of personal assistance for adults with physical impairments, and the impacts of personal assistance on others, compared to other interventions. Adults with physical impairments living in the community who require assistance to perform tasks of daily living and participate in normal activities due to permanent impairments were included. Electronic databases were searched from 1980 to June 2005; reference lists were checked; 345 experts, organisations, government bodies and charities were contacted in an attempt to locate relevant research. One randomised controlled trial involving 817 participants compared personal assistance versus usual care met the selection criteria. Findings showed that whilst personal assistance was generally preferred over other services, some people prefer other models of care. Whilst paid assistance probably substitutes for informal care and may cost government more than alternatives, the total costs to recipients and society are currently unknown. Further studies are required to determine which models of personal assistance are most effective and efficient for particular people.

Book

Walking isn't everything: an account of the life of Jean Denecke

Author:
DENECKE Jean
Publisher:
Crystal Dreams
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
217p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Oshawa, ON

Walking Isn't Everything was written by Jean Denecke about her experience of living with polio. This book discusses what it was like to get polio, her experiences with various hospitals and doctors, and her experience in the Roosevelt Foundation facility in Warm Springs, Georgia. Giving a glimpse of how the delivery of medical services have changed since the polio epidemics of the early 1950s, the book describes what it was like to be a woman with a disability in that era Even though she was hospitalized for a long time, after going to Warm Springs, she was able to return to her home where she continued in her role as a wife and mother, and later started her own business. Walking Isn't Everything is more than just a biography of one remarkable woman - it is a story of courage, determination, and love.

Journal article

Declines in late-life disability: the role of early- and mid-life factors

Authors:
FREEDMAN Vicki A., et al
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 66(7), April 2008, pp.1588-1602.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Investigations into the reasons for declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks of disability onset or recovery. Drawing on five waves from 1995 to 2004 of the U.S. Health and Retirement Study, we found for the 75 years and older population in the United States that the prevalence of difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) declined from 30.2% in 1995 to 26.0% in 2004, whereas the trend in difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was flat. Onset of ADL limitations also was reduced during this period while recovery increased. Changes in the educational composition of the older population were linked to declines in the prevalence of ADL limitations, but there were also modest contributions of changes in mother's education, self-rated childhood health, and lifetime occupation. Declines in late-life vision impairments and increases in wealth also contributed substantially to the downward trend, and had chronic conditions not increased, it would have been even larger. Reductions in the onset of ADL limitations were partly driven by changes in educational attainment of respondents and their mothers and, in late-life, better vision and wealth. In contrast, the recovery trend was not accounted for by changes in early- or mid-life factors. We conclude that early- and mid-life factors have contributed along with late-life factors to U.S. late-life disability trends mainly through their influence on the onset of, rather than recovery from, limitations.

Book Full text available online for free

Personal assistance for adults (19-64) with both physical and intellectual impairments

Authors:
MAYO-WILSON Evan, MONTGOMERY Paul, DENNIS Jane
Publisher:
Campbell Collaboration
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
46p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Oslo

This systematic review aimed to assesses the effectiveness of personal assistance for adults with physical and intellectual impairments, and the impacts of personal assistance on others, compared to other interventions. Adults with permanent physical and intellectual impairments living in the community who require assistance to perform tasks of daily living and participate in everyday activities were included. Electronic databases were searched from 1980 to June 2005; reference lists were checked; 345 experts, organisations, government bodies and charities were contacted in an attempt to locate relevant research.  The review identified two studies that met the inclusion criteria, which included 1002 participants. The review found personal assistance may have some benefits for some recipients and their informal caregivers. Paid assistance probably substitutes for informal care and may cost government more than alternatives; however, some evidence suggests it may reduce costs. Further studies are required to determine which models of personal assistance are most effective and efficient for particular people.

Book Full text available online for free

Personal assistance for older adults (65+) without dementia

Authors:
MONTGOMERY P., MONTGOMERY Paul, MAYO-WILSON E., DENNIS J., MAYO-WILSON Evan, DENNIS Jane
Publisher:
Campbell Collaboration
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
55
Place of publication:
Oslo

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of personal assistance versus any other form of care for older adults. Personal assistance is defined as paid support of at least 20 hours per week for people with impairments. Four studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, which included 1,642 participants. They suggested that personal assistance may be preferred over other services; however, some people prefer other models of care. This review indicates that personal assistance probably has some benefits for some recipients and their informal caregivers. Paid assistance might substitute for informal care and cost government more than alternative arrangements; however, the relative total costs to recipients and society are unknown. While advocates may support personal assistance for myriad reasons, this review concluded that further studies were required to determine which models of personal assistance were most effective.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Care management arrangements for people with physical and sensory disabilities: results of a national study

Authors:
XIE Chengqiu, et al
Journal article citation:
Research Policy and Planning, 26(2), 2008, pp.87-100.
Publisher:
Social Services Research Group

This study reports on a national survey of care management arrangements for people with physical and sensory disabilities in England around a previously devised framework. Marked variations were found in many aspects of care management arrangements, along with a lack of a differentiated approach and limited authority of care managers to allocate services responsively. The findings also suggest that some aspects of care management arrangements are less advanced in services for this user group than for people with learning disabilities. These results are discussed in the context of relevant policy initiatives and literature.

Journal article

Conceptualising the psycho-emotional aspects of disability and impairment: the distortion of personal and psychic boundaries

Authors:
WATERMEYER Brian, SWARTZ Leslie
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 23(6), October 2008, pp.599-610.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

Recent feminist critics of the social model of disability have pointed towards a danger that disability studies may give relatively little attention to personal and emotional aspects of disablist oppression and impairment. The authors argue for consideration of the centrality of the distortion of personal and psychic boundaries as a key aspect of oppressive relational dynamics surrounding disability. Within the observer the disturbing psychic evocations of disability, and related defences, are connected to the maintenance of dynamics of unreal, collusory and alienating modes of relating, which may deprive disabled people of the recognition of subjective experience and personhood. Skewed socialisation of disabled people, involving inter alia the protection of the emotional lives of others, as well as the reality of inaccessible material resources, contributes to the internalisation of disablism and the ideological recruitment of disabled people as complicit in their marginalisation.

Book

Disability and impairment: working with children and families

Author:
BURKE Peter
Publisher:
Jessica Kingsley
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
168p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
London

Peter C Burke shows how social attitudes shape the world of the 'disabled family' either positively or negatively and the effects of stigma. He demonstrates the normality of disability - that children are children whatever their label - and the need for a sensitive professional understanding of the impact of both physical and learning disabilities on family members, in order to improve their quality of life. This book covers the spectrum of disability issues, and offers information and advice for professionals working with families and disability, explaining the value of family support, how to validate the feelings of siblings with disabled brothers and sisters, tackling social exclusion and understanding the role of lifelong professional help.

Journal article

Anxiety, depression and disability across the lifespan

Authors:
BRENES G.A., et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 12(1), January 2008, pp.158-163.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

The authors examined the relationship between anxiety, depression and physical disability, after controlling for demographic and health variables, in a sample of 374 adults aged 18-94. Results indicate that anxiety, depression and comorbid anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of disability, after controlling for factors such as age, gender, income, self-rated health, number of medical conditions and number of physician visits in the past year. Furthermore, anxiety, depression and comorbid anxiety and depression have a differential effect on disability according to age, with older adults with any of these symptoms reporting higher levels of disability than younger adults. These findings suggest that physicians working with older adults should assess for and treat anxiety as well as depressive symptoms.

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