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Journal article

Validity and reliability of Infant Neurological International Battery for detection of gross motor developmental delay in Iran

Journal article citation:
Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(3), May 2007, pp.262-265.

Child development screening is important issue for early detection of developmental delay and disability. Children in different environment acquire developmental abilities at different age. In this paper the authors report the examination of Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) as a screening tool for early detection of gross motor developmental delay in Iran. In this study, the authors reported the result of a study which was conducted on 6150 consecutive 4- to 18-month infants who were referred form Karaj Health Network (Tehran Province) over a 12-month period. A questionnaire was filled for each child, and an evaluation was carried out with INFANIB by occupational therapists. Assessed infants had been classified in three categories: normal, transiently abnormal and abnormal neuro-development. The transient group infants were divided to normal and abnormal group after 3 months’ follow-up. The abnormal group was referred to developmental centre for neuro-developmental examination. For depicting validity of the test, some of the normal, transient and abnormal group was evaluated randomly by paediatrician for neuro-developmental exam and for reliability of test between paediatrician and occupational therapist 54 infants scored randomly by both of them. The INFANIB was valid for normal and abnormal group with 90% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 79% positive predictive value and 93% negative predictive value (NPV). Also the reliability coefficient between the examiners (paediatrician and occupational therapists) was calculated, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.90.  Results indicate that INFANIB is proposed as an appropriate screening test in developing countries such as Iran as a reliable measurement of gross motor developmental delay and short time of performing.

Journal article

Segregated we stand?: the mutilated Greeks' debate at Persepolis, 330 BC

Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 18(7), December 2003, pp.865-879.
Taylor and Francis,

As Alexander reached Persepolis in January 330 BC, he encountered a large group of newly released Greek captives who had been severely mutilated during Persian enslavement. Alexander agreed to aid their resettlement. The men debated whether to return to Greece with money in hand and disperse to their old families, who might be shocked by their appearance, or to stay as a mutually supportive group and receive benefits in Persia with their local partners. Detailed review is made of the historicity of this story recorded by Quintus Curtius, Diodorus Siculus and Justin. Evidence is presented of groupings of disabled people in Middle Eastern antiquity, the transmission of stories about Alexander, textual and linguistic analysis, social responses to severe disability, and truth or exaggeration of war atrocities or gross physical abuse from antiquity and modern times.

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