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Journal article

Perceived overload as a predictor of physical strain among spousal and adult child caregivers of frail elders in the community

Author:
KANG Suk-Young
Journal article citation:
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26(7-8), 2016, pp.636-647.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Family caregivers of frail elders can experience physical strain associated with caregiving. Identifying correlates of caregiver strain can provide an important impetus for tackling the causes and providing effective interventions. Utilizing data from the 1999 National Long-Term Care Survey, the current study examined correlates of caregiver physical strain among 956 family caregivers, using the stress process model. As multiple regression analyses indicated, the caregiver’s perceived overload predicted greater strain for both spousal and adult child caregivers. For both groups, common correlates of physical strain were caregiving demands, the caregiver’s perceived overload, and limitations placed on the caregiver’s life. The results demonstrate that the family relationship of the caregiver (spouse or adult child) leads to variations and dynamics in caregiver strains, due to qualitatively different relationships. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

A review of the biopsychosocial aspects of caregiving for aging family members

Authors:
COLVIN Alex D., BULLOCK Angela N.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Family Social Work, 19(5), 2016, pp.420-442.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

With the ever-increasing growth in the ageing population, the need for care providers will also continue to rise. Many of these caregivers will provide informal care to family members and friends at a price to their own physical, psychological, and social well-being. This article examines the phenomenon of caregiving and provides a review of the biological, psychological, and social impacts of caregiving to care providers. George Engel’s biopsychosocial model is explored to examine the biological, psychological, and social factors that can affect a caregiver’s health and well-being. This article further explores social work practice implications and strategies for future intervention to reduce caregiver burnout and aid in their self-preservation. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Assistive technologies in reducing caregiver burden among informal caregivers of older adults: a systematic review

Author:
MARASINGHE Keshini Madara
Journal article citation:
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 11(5), 2016, pp.353-360.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Aim: The world population is rapidly ageing. As population age, the incidence of functional limitations increases, demanding higher levels of care from caregivers. Assistive technologies improve individuals’ functioning, independence, well-being and quality of life. By increasing independence of older adults, assistive technologies decrease workloads required from informal caregivers. This review investigates, evaluates, and synthesises existing findings to examine whether and how assistive technologies reduce caregiver burden. Methods: Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to assistive technology, caregiver burden, and older adults. Results: Two theories emerged from the analysis of study results. Caregivers reported that assistive technologies decrease caregiver burden. However, caregivers had concerns that assistive technologies could add to caregiver burden, highlighting the limitations of assistive technology. Conclusions: As suggested by a majority of the studies in this review, assistive technologies contribute to reducing caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults. Assistive technologies assisted caregivers by reducing time, levels of assistance and energy put towards caregiving, anxiety and fear, task difficulty, safety risk particularly for activities requiring physical assistance and increasing the independence of the users. Further research is required to better understand limitations of assistive technologies. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Stressful life events in older bipolar patients

Authors:
BEYER John L., et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(12), December 2008, pp.1271-1275.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Theories about the impact of stressful life events (SLE) in bipolar disorder have focused on their role early in the disease. This study aimed to assess the impact of SLE in late life bipolar disorder. Negative SLE experienced by older bipolar subjects was evaluated and compared with younger bipolar subjects and older controls for number, type, and their association with phase of illness, age of onset, and previous episodes. Both younger and older bipolar subjects have more SLE than similarly aged controls. There was no significant difference in the number of stressors that younger and older bipolar subjects experienced, based on mood state, previous episodes, or age-of-onset. Both older and younger depressed bipolar subjects reported more SLE in the previous 12 months compared with those in a manic state. Negative SLE are much more prevalent in bipolar patients compared with age-matched controls, and continue to be frequent in later life.

Journal article

Predicting longitudinal patterns of psychological distress in older husband caregivers: further analysis of existing data

Authors:
LEVESQUE Louise, et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 12(3), May 2008, pp.333-342.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Further analysis of existing data from a previous longitudinal Canadian study of older husband caregivers sought to determine whether primary objective and subjective stressors drawn from Pearlin's model of caregiving could predict three patterns of psychological distress observed in the sample over 1 year: (a) stable high (n = 115), (b) stable low (n = 44), and (c) rising (n = 46). Results of discriminant function analyses show that subjective stressors (level of role overload, role captivity and relational deprivation) at baseline, distinguish the stable low group of husbands from the stable-high. The results suggest that there is considerable stability over time. Many husband caregivers report high-psychological distress and need help, whereas there is a need of preventive interventions to keep psychological distress low. Implications for singular interventions.

Journal article

Caregivers of older clients with severe mental illness: perceptions of burdens and rewards

Authors:
CUMMINGS Sherry M., MacNEIL Gordon
Journal article citation:
Families in Society, 89(1), January 2008, pp.51-60.
Publisher:
The Alliance for Children and Families

Approximately 1 million older persons have a severe mental illness (SMI) and this number is expected to double in the coming decades. While research studies have examined the experiences of family members of younger persons with SMI, very little is known about caregivers of older SMI clients. This study examined the characteristics, burdens, and rewards of 60 caregivers of older SMI clients in the US using a modified version of family caregiver scales of Tessler, Fisher, & Gamache (1992). Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that increased client symptoms, higher levels of help provided, increased caregiver income, and knowledge about the care recipient’s diagnosis were predicative of caregiver burden. Decreased number of client symptoms, care recipient being female, and greater experience of the presence of God predicted caregiver rewards. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Journal article

Social support and adjustment to caring for elder family members: a multi-study analysis

Authors:
SMERGLIA Virginia L., et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 11(2), March 2007, pp.205-217.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

This multi-study analysis systematically examines research findings on relationships between social support and caregiver adjustment to discover whether informal support helps family caregivers. Caring for older relatives is an ongoing stressful life course event and role. Informal social support is often used as a predictor of caregiver adjustment outcomes. It is widely believed to enhance adjustment. Yet the varied research results do not necessarily support this belief. A computer-generated literature search of social sciences and medical databases produced thirty-five caregiving articles, published in refereed journals, which meet study parameters. A coding form was developed to categorize social support and adjustment variables for cross-tabular analyses. The findings show most relationships (61%) between social support and caregiver adjustment are not positively significant. Of the minority of positively significant relationships, neither perceived (available) nor received support is more important and neither instrumental nor socioemotional support is more likely to aid adjustment. Researchers and health care professionals need to explore the negative impact of social support and attributes of caregiver-care recipient relationships.

Journal article

The effects of the Columbia shuttle disaster on the daily lives of older adults: findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

Authors:
NEUPERT S. D., et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 10(3), May 2006, pp.272-281.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

During 2002–2003 the VA Normative Aging Study conducted an eight-day diary survey of stressors and well-being. A sub-sample of 19 men and 13 women (mean age=71.78) completed daily questionnaires before and after the Columbia shuttle exploded on 1st February 2003, presenting a unique look into peoples’ daily lives before and after a tragic event. Results indicated no significant changes in negative affect or physical symptoms, but people reported significant decreases in both positive affect and memory failures on days following the shuttle explosion. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Journal article

Adaption, stress and relocation in old age

Author:
STAMBUK Ana
Journal article citation:
Ljetopis Studijskog Centra Socijalnog Rada, 5,, 1998, pp.105-115.
Publisher:
University of Zagreb
Place of publication:
Zagreb

In this article some ways of adaption in old age are described. [Article in Croatian].

Journal article

Elder mediation project

Author:
CRAIG Yvonne
Journal article citation:
Elders the Journal of Care and Practice, 5(2), July 1996, pp.16-24.

Looks at a Elder Mediation Pilot Project, funded by The New Horizons Trust. Elder Mediation offers older persons confidential problem-solving ways of dealing with difficulties and disputes. It enables them to share in decision-making about concerns which affect their lives. It also empowers them to reach their own agreements about settling conflicts constructively. The aim of mediation is to encourage people, in turn, to listen to each other describe the problem situation and their feelings about this. The mediator then helps them to discuss possible solutions and work out their own acceptable agreements about future relationships.

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