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Journal article

Prospective associations between sedentary behaviour and incident depressive symptoms in older people: a 15-month longitudinal cohort study

Authors:
TSUTSUMIMOTO Kota, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 32(2), 2017, pp.193-200.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether sitting time, as a form of sedentary behaviour, is related to incident depressive symptoms in older people. Methods: This study included 3503 participants (mean age 71.7 years, 50.1% female) from the ‘Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly' cohort study. At baseline and then 15 months later, the participants reported their status of depressive symptoms using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. During the baseline assessment, the participants were also asked about their sedentary behaviour on weekdays over the past 7 days and, from there, categorised into three groups (<240, 240–480, ≥480 min/day). Demographic data and the other health behaviours were also assessed at the baseline. Results: Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 437 participants (12.0%) had depressive symptoms. In a prospective analysis, the logistic regression model revealed that the odds ratio for depressive symptom incidence was higher in participants who, at baseline, spent 480 min or more per day sitting, and in those who spent 240-480 min in comparison with those who spent less than 240 min. Conclusions: Sedentary behaviour significantly affects the risk of incident depressive symptoms. Further research is needed to develop an intervention strategy to manage depressive symptoms, as the second most common cause of burden of disease among older adults. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Suicide in the oldest old: an observational study and cluster analysis

Authors:
SINYOR Mark, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(1), 2016, pp.33-40.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Objectives: The older population are at a high risk for suicide. This study sought to learn more about the characteristics of suicide in the oldest-old and to use a cluster analysis to determine if oldest-old suicide victims assort into clinically meaningful subgroups. Methods: Data were collected from a coroner's chart review of suicide victims in Toronto from 1998 to 2011. The study compared two age groups (65-79 year olds, n = 335, and 80+ year olds, n = 191) and then conducted a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis using Ward's method to identify distinct clusters in the 80+ group. Results: The younger and older age groups differed according to marital status, living circumstances and pattern of stressors. The cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters in the 80+ group. Cluster 1 was the largest (n = 124) and included people who were either married or widowed who had significantly more depression and somewhat more medical health stressors. In contrast, cluster 2 (n = 50) comprised people who were almost all single and living alone with significantly less identified depression and slightly fewer medical health stressors. All members of cluster 3 (n = 17) lived in a retirement residence or nursing home, and this group had the highest rates of depression, dementia, other mental illness and past suicide attempts. Conclusions: This is the first study to use the cluster analysis technique to identify meaningful subgroups among suicide victims in the oldest-old. The results reveal different patterns of suicide in the older population that may be relevant for clinical care. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology

Author:
MACHIELSE Anja
Journal article citation:
Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 58(4), 2015, pp.338-356.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Elder abuse: a systematic review of risk factors in community-dwelling elders

Authors:
JOHANNESEN Mark, LoGIUDICE Dina
Journal article citation:
Age and Ageing, 42(3), 2013, pp.292-298.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Objective: To undertake a systematic literature review of risk factors for abuse in community-dwelling elders, as a first step towards exploring the clinical utility of a risk factor framework. Search strategy and selection criteria: A search was undertaken using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English up to March 2011, to identify original studies with statistically significant risk factors for abuse in community-dwelling elders. Studies concerning self-neglect and persons aged under 55 were excluded. Results: Forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, with 13 risk factors being reproducible across a range of settings in high-quality studies. These concerned the elder person (cognitive impairment, behavioural problems, psychiatric illness or psychological problems, functional dependency, poor physical health or frailty, low income or wealth, trauma or past abuse and ethnicity), perpetrator (caregiver burden or stress, and psychiatric illness or psychological problems), relationship (family disharmony, poor or conflictual relationships) and environment (low social support and living with others except for financial abuse). Conclusions: Current evidence supports the multifactorial aetiology of elder abuse involving risk factors within the elder person, perpetrator, relationship and environment. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Correlates of susceptibility to scams in older adults without dementia

Authors:
JAMES Bryan D., BOYLE Patricia A., BENNETT David A.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 26(2), 2014, pp.107-122.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This study examined correlates of susceptibility to scams in 639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia from a cohort study of ageing in the Chicago district. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income were used to examine associations between susceptibility to scams, measured by a five-item self-report measure, and a number of potential correlates. Susceptibility was positively associated with age and negatively associated with income, cognition, psychological well-being, social support, and literacy. Fully adjusted models indicated that older age and lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy in particular may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Protective and risk factors associated with stigma in a population of older adults living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

Authors:
EMLET Charles A., et al
Journal article citation:
AIDS Care, 25(10), 2013, pp.1330-1339.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Although the deleterious effects of HIV stigma are well documented, less is known about how various types of stigma impact older adults living with HIV disease and what factors exacerbate or lessen the effects of HIV stigma. Using cross-sectional data from the OHTN cohort study (OCS), we undertook multiple linear regression to determine the predictors of overall HIV stigma, and enacted, anticipated, and internalised stigma subscales in a sample of OCS participants age 50 and over (n=378). Being female, heterosexual, engaging in maladaptive coping, and having poor self-rated health were associated with greater overall stigma while being older, having greater mastery, increased emotional-informational social support, and a longer time since HIV diagnosis were associated with lower levels of stigma. The final model accounted for 31% of the variance in overall stigma. Differences in these findings by subscale and implications for practice are discussed. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

The ABC scale and fall risk: a systematic review

Authors:
STASNY Bernadette Marie, et al
Journal article citation:
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 29(3), September 2011, pp.233-242.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

This systematic review focuses on the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale in order to assess how well it predicts falls in older adults living in the community. The evidence is from only three studies, all of which were judged to be good quality. The results suggest that the ABC scale is a useful measure of balance confidence in older adults, but research on its ability to predict falls is limited. Large, longer-term, prospective studies are needed.

Journal article

Preventing falls: how to monitor risk and intervene

Author:
-
Journal article citation:
Nursing and Residential Care, 13(2), February 2011, pp.82-84.
Publisher:
MA Healthcare Ltd.
Place of publication:
London

Highlights what care homes can do to prevent falls in their older residents. The article looks at possible risks and preventive interventions such as physical exercise.

Journal article

Late life depression: a comparison of risk factors and symptoms according to age of onset in community dwelling older adults

Authors:
GALLAGHER Damien, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(10), October 2010, pp.981-987.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Late onset depression is often associated with acquired organic pathology, with patients less likely to report a family history of depression. The majority of previous studies have been in hospital populations. This study addressed this question in a sample of community dwelling older adults. Participants included 89 subjects with GMS-AGECAT depression who were identified from a sample of 1,231 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Subjects were analysed across a range of aetiological and phenomenological variables according to age of onset of first depressive episode. Findings indicated that subjects with late onset depression were significantly less likely to report a family history of depression, were less likely to report previous hospitalisation for depression and had greater cognitive impairment. Late onset subjects were also less likely to report feelings of guilt or thoughts that life was not worth living in the previous month. While patients with late onset depression differed from early onset patients according to certain aetiological risk factors, there was not a distinctive profile of depressive symptomatology which might be considered clinically useful – findings consistent with previous hospital-based studies.

Journal article

Does volunteering moderate the relation between functional limitations and mortality?

Authors:
OKUN Morris A., et al
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 71(9), November 2010, pp.1662-1668.
Publisher:
Elsevier

It has previously been shown that functional limitations increase the risk of mortality in later life, while organisational volunteering decreases this risk. To date, however, no research has investigated the joint effect of functional limitations and organisational volunteering on mortality. In this study the authors tested the hypothesis that volunteering moderates the relation between functional limitations and risk of mortality. Survey data from a representative sample of 916 non-institutionalised adults 65 years old and older who lived in the United States were used. Data on mortality were extracted six years later from the National Death Index. Findings indicated that functional limitations were indeed associated with an increased risk of dying only among participants who never or almost never volunteered, suggesting that volunteering buffers the association between functional limitations and mortality. The authors suggest that while it may be more difficult for older adults with functional limitations to volunteer, they may receive important benefits from doing so.

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