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Journal article

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Author:
ROYSON Claire
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 6.7.02, 2002, pp.32-33.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

The author argues that the major difference between long-term care and long-term caring for older people is the understanding of consent, capacity and autonomy.

Journal article

Revaluating aging in place: from traditional definitions to the continuum of care

Authors:
WEIL Joyce, SMITH Elizabeth
Journal article citation:
Working with Older People, 20(4), 2016, pp.223-230.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: Traditional definitions of ageing in place often define ageing in place specifically as the ability to remain in one’s own home or community setting in later life. The purpose of this paper is to reframe ageing in place and show how narrowly defined ageing in place models can be potentially negative constructs that limit options for older adults. The authors propose a paradigm shift, or a re-framing of, the popularised idea of ageing in place. The authors challenge mainstream and literature-based beliefs that are deeply rooted to the idea that ageing in place ideally happens in the home in which a person has lived for many years. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews common concepts and constructs associated with ageing in place as well as gaps or exclusions, and US-based ageing in place policy initiatives favouring the ageing in place model. Findings: An expanded definition of ageing in place embraces heterogeneity in residence types and living options. A realistic assessment of person-environment fit, matching an older person’s capabilities to his or her environmental demands, allows for the development of additional ageing in place options for those living across the continuum of care. Social implications: Ageing in place should be moved from the personal “success” or “failure” of an older individual to include the role of society and societal views and policies in facilitating or hindering ageing in place options. The authors demonstrate that these options, in facilities within the continuum of care, can be thought of as appealing for older persons of all levels of physical and cognitive functioning. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Exploring the personal and environmental factors related to length of stay in assisted living

Author:
FIELDS Noelle L.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(3), 2016, pp.205-221.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This study explored to what extent personal and environmental factors, as defined by the ecological model of aging, help us to understand length of stay in assisted living (AL). A convenience sample (N = 218) of administrative records of AL residents admitted between the years 2006 and 2011 was collected and included AL residents' demographic and healthcare information as well as dates of admission and discharge. Cox regression was used to determine which personal and environmental factors influenced length of stay in three AL programs. Number of medical diagnoses, level of care score, and facility were found to be significant predictors of length of stay. The analyses identified a median survival time of 32 months as well as critical periods for discharge from AL. Implications for future research and social work practice are presented. (Publisher abstract)

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Review of care products: key messages

Author:
GREAT BRITAIN. Department of Health
Publisher:
Department of Health
Publication year:
2014
Pagination:
4
Place of publication:
London

The Department of Health invited representatives of the financial services industry to conduct a review of the market of products to fund care. These reports have identified opportunities for development of financial care products and the problems they might face. This short report presents key messages from the financial services industry, which briefly outlines the types of plans those entering care (mainly aged 75+), the ‘semi-retired’, and those of working age should make. It suggests the sorts of “products” that could help with care costs, e.g. Equity Release; and that certain conditions are also needed to create consumer demand for such products to make provision for care, for example helping people to access good financial advice. The review was supported by 3 industry-led working groups that looked a: consumers and the marketplace, housing and equity, and pensions and insurance. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The relevance of Marjory Warren’s writings today

Authors:
ST. JOHN Philip D., HOGAN David B.
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 54(1), 2014, pp.21-29.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

Marjory Warren was one of the initial geriatricians in the United Kingdom. She established specialised geriatric units, held important administrative positions, and wrote influential papers where she argued for the need of the specialty of geriatric medicine and outlined principles for inpatient care of older adults with chronic illness. The authors compare and contrast Warren’s early papers describing these principles with contemporary models for improving inpatient care of older adults and the need for the specialty of geriatrics. Warren’s writings on the inpatient care of older adults presage the principles of both Hospital Elder Life Programs and Acute Care of the Elderly units. The importance of multidisciplinary teams, the physical environment, attention to diverse issues (medical, social, functional), early ambulation, and the active involvement of the older person in their daily routine are present in Warren’s writings and in contemporary approaches. Warren’s arguments for both the specialty of geriatric medicine and increased training of nonspecialist physicians and other health professionals are remarkably similar to those made in a recent Institute of Medicine report. Across time and place, there has been consistency in the general principles perceived as required for the effective cares of older persons, but challenges persist in implementing and sustaining them. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Mapping the future of family care: receipt of informal care by older people with disabilities in England to 2032

Authors:
PICKARD Linda, et al
Journal article citation:
Social Policy and Society, 11(4), October 2012, pp.533-545.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

Today, in many economically developed countries, long-term care systems are reliant on informal care. However, in the context of population ageing, there are concerns about the future supply of informal care. This article reports on projections of informal care receipt by older people with disabilities from spouses and adult children to 2032 in England. The current projections show that the relative numbers of older people with disabilities who have a child will fall by 2032, and that the extent of informal care in future may be lower than previously estimated. The policy implications for England are discussed.

Journal article

Long-term care for older people and EU Law: the position in England and Scotland

Authors:
HERVEY Tamara, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 34(1), March 2012, pp.105-124.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

The implications of EU law for UK healthcare provision have been tracked by the literature, and covered in EU legislation. However, long-term care for older people involves not only healthcare but also social care. This article examined to what extent, if at all, is the current legal position on long-term care for older people in England and Scotland potentially inconsistent with the UK's obligations in EU law? Drawing on empirical data gathered in early 2010 for a European Commission report, this article considers in detail how EU law might apply to the social care aspects of long-term care for older people in England and Scotland. It concludes that EU law is an important element of the long-term care policy context. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Caps, opt-ins, opt outs: is England making progress in reforming care funding?

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
24p.
Place of publication:
London

This discussion paper provides a response to the government's recent progress report on care funding. The government’s report ‘Caring for our future: progress report on funding reform’, July 2012, set out the government's response to the recommendations of the Commission on Funding of Care and Support. In this document, the government accepts as the basis for reform the principle put forward by the Commission of financial protection through capped costs and an extended means test, but reveals that it will not make a decision on the capped cost model until the next Spending Review expected in late 2013. This response paper argues that the government's progress report effectively acknowledges that care funding reform could proceed on a cost-neutral basis for the Treasury, and not interfere with the government's deficit reduction strategy. However, the government fails to set out any of the options for paying for care funding reform and does not seek to use its report to inform a wider debate on this issue. This discussion paper suggests that progress toward care funding reform may occur in several ways: public acceptance of the difficult tax and spending decisions required to make the capped cost model cost-neutral for the Treasury; the implementation of a low-cost capped cost model; or the creation of a voluntary capped cost state-sponsored insurance scheme that becomes mandatory over time.

Journal article

Comparative political economy of long-term care for elderly people: political logic of universalistic social care policy development

Author:
HIEDA Takeshi
Journal article citation:
Social Policy and Administration, 46(3), June 2012, pp.258-279.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Despite there being common socio-demographic pressures across industrialised countries, the public elder care programmes tend to vary. This study explored the causal relationship between political institutions and public long-term care programmes. It examined time-series and cross-section data of advanced democracies, from 1980 until 2001. It argued that countries with fragmented party systems have difficulties in developing universalistic public elder care programmes, whereas countries with party-vote-oriented electoral systems and cohesive party systems are likely to develop better elder care programmes. For whilst the former types of political institutions prioritise patronage-based, particularistic benefits, the latter types encourage political actors to appeal to broader constituencies through universalistic welfare programmes. The empirical results suggest that politicians' reliance on personal votes obstruct the expansion of public spending for elder care.

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The impact of devolution: long-term care provision in the UK

Author:
BELL David
Publisher:
Joseph Rowntree Foundation
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
41p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
York

This report on long-term care provision policies, from a series on the impact of 10 years devolved government in the United Kingdom, considers the constraint that tax and benefit structure (control of which remains centrally within the Departmental Expenditure Limits (DEL) system), has on Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England. The importance of having secondary social care, funded from Annually Managed Expenditure by the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) and less bound to annual budgets than DEL, in minimising diversity of delivered care is discussed. The inability of devolved governments to steer DWP, due to weak intergovernmental relations, is highlighted and in section 2 Scottish attendance allowances and Welsh domiciliary care charges are contrasted. Section 3 details demand for care varies more within countries than between them, while section 4 highlights divergence in older people’s ability to pay. A current snapshot of care provision across the UK in section 5, is followed by a focus on free personal care, personalisation and charging in Section 6.  Section 7 reiterates that policies can be constrained as well as enhanced by devolution. Other reports, in this series, detail area based regeneration, indicators of poverty and social exclusion, employment and employability and housing and homelessness.

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