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Journal article

Alcohol misuse, gender and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling seniors

Authors:
JOHN Philip D., MONTGOMERY Patrick R., TYAS Suzanne L.
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(4), April 2009, pp.369-375.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study aimed to: (1) to describe the characteristics of seniors who score 1 or more on the CAGE (Cut down; Annoyed; Guilty; Eye-opener) questionnaire of alcohol problems; and (2) to determine if depressive symptoms are associated with alcohol misuse after accounting for other factors. Cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older people (65+ years) sampled from a representative population registry in Manitoba, Canada. Participants were initially interviewed in 1991-1992 and reinterviewed in 1996-1997. Data from Time 2 were used; 1,028 persons were included in the analyses. Sociodemographic characteristics, the CAGE questionnaire, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed by trained interviewers. Males were more likely to score positive on the CAGE questionnaire. After adjusting for gender, age, and education, there was a strong association between depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Poor self-rated health and impairments in IADLs were also associated with alcohol misuse. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and poor functional status were associated with alcohol misuse in this population-based study. Attention to depressive symptoms and functional status may be important in the care of seniors with alcohol misuse. Alternatively, physicians should enquire about alcohol use in seniors with functional impairment or depressive symptoms.

Journal article

Movement in mind: the relationship of exercise with cognitive status for older adults in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC)

Authors:
LINDWALL Magnus, RENNEMARK Mikael, BERGGREN Tomas
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 12(2), March 2008, pp.212-220.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of light and strenuous exercise, and self-reported change in exercise status, with different components of cognitive function, and gender differences in this relation, in a large, representative sample included in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC). Eight-hundred-and-thirteen participants in age-cohorts from 60-96 years completed a wide range of cognitive function tests, the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and survey questions concerning exercise behaviour and exercise change with light or strenuous intensity. ANCOVA, controlling for age, education, depression, functional status and co-morbidity, demonstrated a main effect for light exercise, but not for strenuous exercise, on five of the six cognitive tests and the MMSE, for men but nor for women. A negative change in exercise status was associated with lower MMSE scores for men but not for women. Individuals exercising with light intensity several times a week had the highest cognitive test and MMSE scores and the inactive group had the lowest scores. The results of the study may contribute to increased knowledge in the exercise-mental health relationship for elderly and spawn new research specifically on gender differences in this relation.

Journal article

Does sense of coherence affect the relationship between self-rated health and health status in a sample of community-dwelling frail elderly people?

Authors:
SAEVAREID H. I., et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 11(6), November 2007, pp.658-667.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

The objective of this Norwegian study was to examine the association between self-rated health (SRH) and physical, functional, social and mental health measures in community dwelling elderly people needing nursing care. Of special interest was how coping resources (SOC) influenced this relationship. Self-rated health is a good predictor of future health status as measured by mortality and morbidity, decline of functional abilities, use of healthcare, and nursing home placement. The high mean age and the relatively high level of care-dependency in this sample, make this investigation important. A hierarchical regression analysis was applied in a cross sectional sample of 242 elderly (mean age 84.6 years). Results found subjective health complaints (SHC) in both sexes, and psychological distress (only in men), was associated directly with SRH. Coping resources associated with SRH directly, and indirectly through subjective perceived health (SHC and GHQ) but only in men. The influence of registered illness was mediated through the effects of subjectively perceived health in both women and men. Sex differences moderated the effects of SOC on SRH. Subjectively perceived health was more important in the perception of SRH than objective health measures. Men, in contrast to women, tend to convert physical illness into emotional distress.

Book Full text available online for free

Older people: a gendered review and secondary analysis of the data

Authors:
BONO Emilia Del, et al
Publisher:
Equal Opportunities Commission
Publication year:
2007
Pagination:
80p.
Place of publication:
Manchester

Part of the Equal Opportunities Commission Working Paper series, this study has two main objectives, firstly to look at the current and future situation of older people, here defined as people over 65 and to investigate the extent of gender differences in older people's degree of social inclusion.

Journal article

Trends in suicide rates of the elderly in Austria, 1970-2004: an analysis of changes in terms of age groups, suicide methods and gender

Authors:
KAPUSTA Netsor D., ETZERSDORFER Elmar, SONNECK Germot
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(5), May 2007, pp.438-444.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Suicides of the elderly (persons aged 65 and older) make up a large proportion of total suicides. Since suicide rates of the elderly are highest in western populations, addressing them as a risk group in prevention plans has been recommended. In order to assess possible approaches to prevention strategies, this study examines high-risk groups of the elderly. The authors examined official statistics on suicides that occurred in Austria between 1970-2004 (18,101 Suicides of the elderly). The authors  analyzed time trends and differences in suicide methods as well as in age groups and both genders of the elderly. Three major high-risk groups were identified: elderly male suicides by firearms; elderly female suicides by poisoning, which occur more often with increasing age; and suicides of both genders by jumping from heights. Besides conducting treatment of psychiatric disorders of the elderly, restricting the means to commit suicide may help to prevent it among the elderly. Such specific prevention strategies should be implemented in national suicide prevention plans for the high-risk groups identified in this study.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Prison's ageing population

Author:
PHILPOT Terry
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 7.09.06, 2006, pp.30-31.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

Over-60s are the fastest growing group of prisoners. The author looks at how their mental, social and physical well-being can suffer, even after release, as the needs of younger inmates dominate the system.

Journal article

Gender differences in expectations predictive of volunteer experience among older Chinese professionals in Hong Kong

Authors:
MJELDE-MOSSEY Lee Ann, CHI Iris
Journal article citation:
Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 13(4), 2004, pp.47-64.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This study examines gender differences in expectations predictive of volunteer experience. A sample of 438 Chinese professionals in Hong Kong ages 45-79, including retired (36.3%) and employed (63.7%), were asked about their expectations for volunteer work. Gender was evenly distributed, with 49.8% male and 50.2% female. Forty-three percent (43%) had volunteer experience. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to sub-samples by gender, and gender differences emerged. For males, married and the expectation to utilize own skills were associated with volunteer experience. For females, self-rated health, retired, and the expectation to meet the needs of others were associated with volunteer experience. These results suggest that gender differences in expectations may influence volunteer activity. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street,  Binghamton, NY 13904-1580).

Journal article

Comparison of suicide in people aged 65-74 and 75+ by gender in England and Wales and the major Western countries 1979-1999

Authors:
PRICHARD Colin, HANSEN Lars
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(1), January 2005, pp.17-25.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The factors most strongly associated with suicide are age and gender - more men than women, and, more people over 65 kill themselves. As a number of Governments have targets to reduce suicide levels we compare elderly suicide rates over a 20-year period in England and Wales. And the major Western countries focusing upon age and gender. Male GSPR: 65-74 suicide ratios fell significantly in six countries and in three for the 75+. Female GSPR: 65-74 suicide ratios fell in every country except Spain. Proportionately, there were more suicides in the over 65s in countries with an extended family tradition, Spain, Italy, Germany, France and Japan, than in the five secular countries. England and Wales male 65-74 suicide fell significantly more than Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Netherlands and the USA, and did significantly better than the other countries for all female senior citizen suicides. Suicide of the over-65s has improved in seven countries, especially in England and Wales, who had the greatest proportional reduction, which reflects well upon the psycho-geriatric and community services. However, in all countries, male 65-74 rates did not match the female out so extra efforts are needed to improve male rates.

Journal article

Geriatric Depression Scale Scores in a representative sample of 14 545 people aged 75 and over in the United Kingdom: results from the MRC Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community

Authors:
OSBORN David P.J., et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(4), April 2002, pp.375-382.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is recommended for screening older people, but there are no large epidemiological studies using this instrument in the UK. This article describes the age and sex distribution of GDS-15 scores in the largest ever UK sample of people aged 75 and over. The GDS-15 was offered to a representative sample of UK people aged 75 and over. Proportions of people attaining thresholds on the GDS-15 were calculated by age group and sex. The data provides a national picture of the numbers of older people who will score positively for depression in health screens which include the GDS-15.

Journal article

Trends in informal care in Great Britain during the 1990s

Author:
HIRST Michael
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Care in the Community, 9(6), November 2001, pp.348-357.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This article presents new evidence from annual surveys of the size and composition of the carer population during the 1990s. It describes and interprets recent trends in the prevalence of informal care among adults in Great Britain and estimates absolute and relative changes in the carer population. Goes on to investigate changes in patterns of caregiving, who cares for whom and the time spent on caring activities, to help identify some of the factors that might be shaping informal care in the future years.

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