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Book

Age and employment: why employers should think again about older workers

Author:
WORSLEY Richard
Publisher:
Age Concern
Publication year:
1996
Pagination:
160p.,list of orgs.,bibliog.
Place of publication:
London

Comprehensive review of employers' policies and practices on employment of older workers.

Book

Employment: the role of work in the third age

Authors:
TRINDER Chris, HULME Geoffrey, McCARTHY Una
Publisher:
Carnegie United Kingdom Trust
Publication year:
1992
Pagination:
83p.,bibliog.
Place of publication:
Dunfermline
Journal article

Access to bridge employment: who finds and who does not find work after retirement?

Authors:
DINGEMANS Ellen, HENKENS Kene, VAN SOLINGE Hanna
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 56(4), 2016, pp.630-640.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

Purpose of the study: Empirical studies on the determinants of bridge employment have often neglected the fact that some retirees may be unsuccessful in finding a bridge job. We present an integrative framework that emphasises socioeconomic factors, health status, social context, and psychological factors to explain why some people fully retired after career exit, some participated in bridge jobs, while others unsuccessfully searched for one. Design and methods: Using Dutch panel data for 1,221 retirees, we estimated a multinomial logit model to explain participation in, and unsuccessful searches for, bridge employment. Results: About 1 in 4 retirees participated in bridge employment after retirement, while 7% searched unsuccessfully for such work. Particularly those who experienced involuntary career exit were found to have a higher probability of being unsuccessful at finding bridge employment. Implications: The current study provides evidence for the impact of the social context on post-retirement work and suggests a cumulative disadvantage in the work domain in later life. (Edited publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

Extending working life sector initiative: a review

Authors:
STRUDWICK Maria, KIRKPATRICK Andrea
Publisher:
Great Britain. Department for Work and Pensions
Publication year:
2013
Pagination:
67p.
Place of publication:
London

Extending Working Life (EWL) is needed because of demographic changes, increases to State Pension Age and the current state of under-saving for retirement. The EWL Sector Initiative was an innovative approach to employer engagement, using contracted intermediaries or ‘Engagement Managers’ to equip a range of sector bodies with information about the benefits of employing older workers. Nine sectors (construction, retail, hospitality, public administration, manufacturing, transport, health and care, finance and education) were chosen to represent a large proportion of employers and of the total workforce. Interviews took place during the end of 2011/ beginning of 2012 with the Project Manager and the five Engagement Managers who provided the support, representatives from nine sector bodies and the policy team from the DWP. The short term aim of engaging across the sectors was achieved. The extent to which sector leads were planning to promote extending working life issues after this initiative varied.

Journal article

Transitions to part-time work at older ages: the case of people with disabilities in Europe

Author:
PAGÁN Ricardo
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 27(1), 2012, pp.95-115.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

This article examines the labour-force transitions of older workers with disabilities in general, particularly workers’ transitions to and from part-time employment within a European context. Using the 2004 and 2007 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, the article compares transitions between employment statuses for disabled and non-disabled individuals, even after controlling for different disability trajectories. In addition, it examines the determinants for remaining in part-time work in 2007 for those individuals who were part-timers in 2004. Findings indicated that older people with long-term disabilities had a higher probability of staying in a part-time job than their compared counterparts. The authors concluded that policy-makers must promote part-time employment as a means of increasing employment opportunities for older workers with disabilities and support gradual retirement opportunities with flexible working hours.

Journal article

Understanding the older entrepreneur

Author:
SMALL Malcolm
Journal article citation:
Working with Older People, 16(3), 2012, pp.132-140.
Publisher:
Emerald

Older workers facing redundancy or retirement may decide to run their own business, be that a company, partnership, or on a self-employed basis. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the prevalence of entrepreneurial activity amongst older people, and whether such activity may be an option for them to extend their working lives. The research sample was recruited from the Institute of Directors Policy Voice database. An e-mail survey was distributed which included a series of questions relating to age and business activities. Older respondents (aged 55 years or over) were also asked to answer 3 more open-ended questions in more depth. Over 1,200 responses to the survey were received. The findings show that starting, running or continuing in individual business or entrepreneurial activity was surprisingly commonplace amongst the research sample, suggesting that there might be more older entrepreneurs amongst the population as a whole than might have previously been supposed. For those with the requisite skills and personal attributes, entrepreneurship in later life would appear to be a valid option for extending working lives.

Journal article

Prevalence and correlates of perceived workplace discrimination among older workers in the United States of America

Authors:
CHOU Rita Jing-Ann, CHOI Namkee G.
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 31(6), August 2011, pp.1051-1070.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

Based on data about 420 older workers aged 50 years and above from a national survey (Midlife in the United States II), this study examined the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination among older workers, and sociodemographic factors that are associated with workplace discrimination. The analysis indicated that more than 81% of the older workers encountered at least one workplace discriminatory treatment within a year. The article includes tables with details of types and prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination among older workers and differences with age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupation and wage. Lower education, racial/ethnic minority status and lower wages were associated with higher prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination. The findings also showed that supervisor support was more essential than co-worker support in alleviating perceived workplace discrimination. The authors conclude that as older adults are increasing workforce participation, reducing workplace discrimination against older workers deserves more attention.

Journal article

'Third-age' workers caring for adults and older people in England: findings from secondary analysis of the National Minimum Data Set for Social Care

Authors:
HUSSEIN Shereen, MANTHORPE Jill
Journal article citation:
Diversity in Health and Care, 8(2), June 2011, pp.103-112.
Publisher:
Radcliffe Publishing

Even though the UK has implemented policies to combat the effects of age discrimination, ageism is still evident in the hiring, retention and career development opportunities of older workers. As such, this paper investigated the current stock of older workers in the adult social care sector in England. Data was drawn from the National Minimum Data Set for Social Care, and included 80,000 samples of workers. The paper examined the changing profile of three closely related third-age cohorts and investigate the similarities and differences between those working in the care sector aged 60 years or older, and two younger age groups, namely 50-54 and 55-59 years. Analysis revealed that workers in the age range 50-75 years constitute nearly 40% of the whole workforce. In particular, the impact of the oldest third-age group, aged 60-75 years, is substantial, contributing to around 12% of the total. The implications of this diversity are explored.

Journal article

The relationship between women’s work histories and incomes in later life in the UK, US and West Germany

Authors:
SEFTON Tom, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of European Social Policy, 21(1), February 2011, pp.20-36.
Publisher:
Sage

This study examines the relationship between employment history and the personal income of older women in the UK, US and West Germany. It compares three countries with different welfare and pension systems, and aims to achieve a better understanding of the interaction between the life course, pension system and women’s incomes in later life. The study draws on data from longitudinal surveys, and includes 1,418 samples from the UK, 1,127 from the US and 2,270 from Germany. Findings reveal that the association between older women’s incomes and employment history is strongest in West Germany and weakest in the UK, where there is evidence of a pensions poverty trap and where only predominantly full-time employment is associated with significantly higher incomes in later life. Employment history matters less for widows in all three countries and more for recent birth cohorts and more educated women in the UK only. In ending, the paper discusses the adequacy of the treatment of women under different pension systems.

Journal article

Eldercare and employed caregivers: a public/private responsibility?

Authors:
KOERIN Beverly B., HARRIGAN Marcia P., SECRET Mary
Journal article citation:
Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 51(1/2), 2008, pp.143-161.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Some 20% of the US population is estimated to provide care to a family member over the age of 18, the majority to older people. Most work full or part time, nearly two-thirds have to make work-related adjustments in order to provide care, and there has been relatively little support from legislation and public policy until recently. This paper examines the problems facing employed carers of older family members; identifies current private and public policies on carer needs, presents a process model for creating family-friendly workplaces, and identifies social work roles that support family caring. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street,  Binghamton, NY 13904-1580).

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