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Journal article

Caregivers of frail elders: updating a national profile

Authors:
WOLFF Jennifer L., KASPER Judith D.
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 46(3), June 2006, pp.344-=356.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

In this American study data are drawn from the 1989 and 1999 National Long-Term Care Survey and Informal Caregiver Survey to develop nationally representative profiles of disabled older adults and their primary informal caregivers at two points in time. The proportion of chronically disabled community-dwelling older adults who were receiving informal assistance from family or friends declined over the period of interest, whereas the proportion receiving no human help increased. On average, recipients of informal care were older and more disabled in 1999 than in 1989. Primary caregivers were children (41.3%), spouses (38.4%), and other family or friends (20.4%); children were more likely and others less likely to serve as primary caregivers in 1999 relative to 1989. Primary caregivers provided frequent and high levels of help at both points in time. A striking increase was found (from 34.9% to 52.8%) in the proportion of primary caregivers working alone, without secondary caregiver involvement. In the context of projected demographic trends and budgetary constraints to public health insurance programs, these data underscore the importance of identifying viable strategies to monitor and support family caregivers in the coming years.

Book

Carers talking: interviews with family carers of older, dependent people in the European Community

Editors:
MESTHENEOS Elizabeth, TRIANTAFILLOU Judith
Publisher:
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Publication year:
1993
Pagination:
115p.
Place of publication:
Dublin

A collection of personal accounts from carers of older people, designed to illustrate and examine the experience of becoming and being a family carer and how the nature and costs of caring change over time.

Journal article

Cognition of caregiving tasks: multidimensional scaling of the caregiver task domain

Author:
ALBERT Steven M.
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 31(6), 1991, pp.726-734.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

Reports on a study of the tasks performed by carers to distinguish the distinctions they make between different types of caring.

Book

Action for carers: a guide for local groups

Author:
TOOTH Jenny
Publisher:
Age Concern
Publication year:
1988
Place of publication:
London

Action guide detailing specific services that voluntary organisations could established, with information on successful schemes.

BookDigital Media Full text available online for free

Personal budgets briefing: learning from the experiences of older people and their carers

Author:
SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE
Publisher:
Social Care Institute for Excellence
Publication year:
2011
Pagination:
6p.
Place of publication:
London

This briefing provides a summary of older people's and carers experiences of using self-directed support and personal budgets. It is based on a six month study commissioned from a joint team from Acton Shapiro, the National Centre for Independent Living (NCIL) and the Social Policy Research Unit (SPRU). The briefing covers moving to a personal budget, deciding on personal budget, being assessed, resource allocation, support planning, ways of holding a personal budget, obtaining support, the role of carers, management of the personal budget, the role of external organisations and monitoring arrangements.

Journal article

Perceived overload as a predictor of physical strain among spousal and adult child caregivers of frail elders in the community

Author:
KANG Suk-Young
Journal article citation:
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26(7-8), 2016, pp.636-647.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Family caregivers of frail elders can experience physical strain associated with caregiving. Identifying correlates of caregiver strain can provide an important impetus for tackling the causes and providing effective interventions. Utilizing data from the 1999 National Long-Term Care Survey, the current study examined correlates of caregiver physical strain among 956 family caregivers, using the stress process model. As multiple regression analyses indicated, the caregiver’s perceived overload predicted greater strain for both spousal and adult child caregivers. For both groups, common correlates of physical strain were caregiving demands, the caregiver’s perceived overload, and limitations placed on the caregiver’s life. The results demonstrate that the family relationship of the caregiver (spouse or adult child) leads to variations and dynamics in caregiver strains, due to qualitatively different relationships. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

A review of the biopsychosocial aspects of caregiving for aging family members

Authors:
COLVIN Alex D., BULLOCK Angela N.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Family Social Work, 19(5), 2016, pp.420-442.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

With the ever-increasing growth in the ageing population, the need for care providers will also continue to rise. Many of these caregivers will provide informal care to family members and friends at a price to their own physical, psychological, and social well-being. This article examines the phenomenon of caregiving and provides a review of the biological, psychological, and social impacts of caregiving to care providers. George Engel’s biopsychosocial model is explored to examine the biological, psychological, and social factors that can affect a caregiver’s health and well-being. This article further explores social work practice implications and strategies for future intervention to reduce caregiver burnout and aid in their self-preservation. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Assistive technologies in reducing caregiver burden among informal caregivers of older adults: a systematic review

Author:
MARASINGHE Keshini Madara
Journal article citation:
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 11(5), 2016, pp.353-360.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Aim: The world population is rapidly ageing. As population age, the incidence of functional limitations increases, demanding higher levels of care from caregivers. Assistive technologies improve individuals’ functioning, independence, well-being and quality of life. By increasing independence of older adults, assistive technologies decrease workloads required from informal caregivers. This review investigates, evaluates, and synthesises existing findings to examine whether and how assistive technologies reduce caregiver burden. Methods: Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to assistive technology, caregiver burden, and older adults. Results: Two theories emerged from the analysis of study results. Caregivers reported that assistive technologies decrease caregiver burden. However, caregivers had concerns that assistive technologies could add to caregiver burden, highlighting the limitations of assistive technology. Conclusions: As suggested by a majority of the studies in this review, assistive technologies contribute to reducing caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults. Assistive technologies assisted caregivers by reducing time, levels of assistance and energy put towards caregiving, anxiety and fear, task difficulty, safety risk particularly for activities requiring physical assistance and increasing the independence of the users. Further research is required to better understand limitations of assistive technologies. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article Full text available online for free

A review of conceptualisation of expressed emotion in caregivers of older adults with dementia

Authors:
LI Chao-Yin, MURRAY MaryAnne
Journal article citation:
Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(3-4), 2015, pp.332-343.
Publisher:
John Wiley and Sons

Aims and Objectives: To clarify the concept of ‘expressed emotion’ and its application to caregivers of older adults with dementia. Background: Expressed emotion has been a useful construct for understanding the quality of family relationships affecting patients with mental illness and their caregivers. However, this concept has been developed without precisely defining ‘expressed emotion’ as it pertains to dementia patients. Clarity regarding expressed emotion will enable nurses to apply knowledge of expressed emotion and provide important information for the development of new clinical interventions for this specific population. Design: Integrative review. Methods: A review of literature on expressed emotion by caregivers of older adults with dementia. The inclusion criteria were: (1) published in English or Chinese during 1970–2012; (2) included both research and theoretical review articles on expressed emotion in nursing and other disciplines such as psychology, psychiatry and sociology. Initially, 236 articles were screened, and finally, 32 articles were evaluated for this review. Results: Emotional expression and expressed emotion were discussed to clarify the distinctions and address overlap between these two similar terms. In addition, expressed emotion was examined further from three different aspects: trait or state, social control and cross-cultural. Finally, the results of reviewed papers for expressed emotion on dementia patients were explored and synthesised. Conclusion: A conceptual definition and a theoretical framework for the concept of expressed emotion are urgently needed to further our understanding of this critical phenomenon. With increasing attention to caregiving for patients with dementia, including the concept of expressed emotion in the research of this field may accelerate understanding of the importance of the family dynamics in advanced ageing caregiving. Relevance to clinical practice: The expressed emotion concept could guide much of current clinical practice and help professional nurses understand the family's experience and perspective on mental illness, especially regarding dementia within the family. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Transitions in caregiving: evaluating a person-centered approach to supporting family caregivers in the community

Authors:
SUNDAR Vidyalakshmi, FOX Susan W., PHILLIPS Kimberly G.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 56(6-7), 2013, pp.750-765.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Caregivers of older adults provide a wide range of informal supports and services that enable older adults to continue living in the community. This study describes the use of a multicomponent intervention combined with a person-centered approach to assist caregivers of older adults in the community. Four hundred and eighteen caregiver and care recipient dyads participated in this study and their outcomes related to burden, depression, well-being, and care recipient functional status were evaluated. The findings suggest that adult child and spousal caregivers experience burden differently. Programs designed to support caregivers must tailor services to the unique needs of adult child and spousal caregivers. (Publisher abstract)

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