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Book

Ageism

Author:
BYTHEWAY Bill
Publisher:
Open University Press
Publication year:
1995
Pagination:
154p.,bibliog.
Place of publication:
Buckingham

Reviews the literature on ageism and sets it in a historical context. Considers the settings in which ageism can occur and identifies issues that are basic in determining a theory of ageism. Includes case studies.

Book

Aspects of ageism: a discussion paper

Author:
NORMAN Alison
Publisher:
Centre for Policy on Ageing
Publication year:
1986
Pagination:
23p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
London
Book Full text available online for free

Safe later lives: older people and domestic abuse

Author:
SAFELIVES
Publisher:
SafeLives
Publication year:
2016
Pagination:
31
Place of publication:
London

This report focuses on older victims of domestic abuse, a group often overlooked in the literature that tends to focus on younger victims and perpetrators. It estimates that in the last year approximately 120,000 individuals aged 65+ have experienced at least one form of abuse (psychological, physical, sexual or financial). The report outlines the following six key findings: systematic invisibility of older people who are not represented in domestic abuse services and lack of recognition amongst some professionals of the phenomenon; long term abuse and dependency issues, which may add additional pressures to stay with an abusive partner; generational attitudes about abuse may make it hard to identify; increased risk of adult family abuse; services are not effectively targeted at older victims, and do not always meet their needs; and need for more coordination between services. The report argues that social care services need training to understand the dynamics of abuse in a caring relationship; they should target older people with messages that empower them to recognise their situation as abuse, and raise awareness of support available; and that services working with adults and their older parents must be trained to recognise abuse, and have clear referral pathways. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Prevalence and correlates of perceived workplace discrimination among older workers in the United States of America

Authors:
CHOU Rita Jing-Ann, CHOI Namkee G.
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 31(6), August 2011, pp.1051-1070.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

Based on data about 420 older workers aged 50 years and above from a national survey (Midlife in the United States II), this study examined the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination among older workers, and sociodemographic factors that are associated with workplace discrimination. The analysis indicated that more than 81% of the older workers encountered at least one workplace discriminatory treatment within a year. The article includes tables with details of types and prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination among older workers and differences with age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupation and wage. Lower education, racial/ethnic minority status and lower wages were associated with higher prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination. The findings also showed that supervisor support was more essential than co-worker support in alleviating perceived workplace discrimination. The authors conclude that as older adults are increasing workforce participation, reducing workplace discrimination against older workers deserves more attention.

Book Full text available online for free

A long time coming: part 1: strategies for achieving age equality in mental health services

Author:
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TEAM FOR INCLUSION
Publisher:
National Development Team for Inclusion
Publication year:
2011
Pagination:
27p.
Place of publication:
Bath

This document reports on the findings of the Achieving Age Equality in Mental Health Network. The Network ran from November 2010 to March 2011 and consisted of 4 different elements: development support to 2 localities based in the Midlands; a call for information on practical examples of age equality in mental health services; analysis of local and national data; and a review of concurrent national and development programmes. The development support provided to the 2 health and social care communities in the Midlands involved the audit of local mental health services to establish whether and where age discrimination exists and to identify priority actions for developing cost effective and inclusive mental health systems for all ages. This document is the first of 2 reports arising from this work. It focuses on the findings, key messages and priorities for achieving age equality. It identifies the critical issues that need urgent attention in order to eradicate age discrimination in mental health services everywhere. A central message is the need for much greater clarity and a shared understanding about age equality in respect of mental health and mental health services. The report sets out 4 priority actions identified by the Network that need to be taken forward at both a local and a national level.

Book Full text available online for free

A long time coming: part 2: achieving age equality in local mental health services

Author:
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TEAM FOR INCLUSION
Publisher:
National Development Team for Inclusion
Publication year:
2011
Pagination:
52p.
Place of publication:
Bath

This document reports on the findings of the Achieving Age Equality in Mental Health Network. The Network ran from November 2010 to March 2011 and consisted of 4 different elements: development support to 2 localities based in the Midlands; a call for information on practical examples of age equality in mental health services; analysis of local and national data; and a review of concurrent national and development programmes. This document is the second of 2 reports arising from this work. It shares the experiences and lessons from the activities undertaken by the 2 Network sites, and the experiences of working in partnership to audit their mental health services, explore issues of discrimination and equality, and identify priority actions in order to address the identified age discrimination. The report outlines the practical steps that local health and social care communities can take to audit their services in order to identify where discrimination exists and what needs to happen in order to achieve age equality.

Journal article

'Third-age' workers caring for adults and older people in England: findings from secondary analysis of the National Minimum Data Set for Social Care

Authors:
HUSSEIN Shereen, MANTHORPE Jill
Journal article citation:
Diversity in Health and Care, 8(2), June 2011, pp.103-112.
Publisher:
Radcliffe Publishing

Even though the UK has implemented policies to combat the effects of age discrimination, ageism is still evident in the hiring, retention and career development opportunities of older workers. As such, this paper investigated the current stock of older workers in the adult social care sector in England. Data was drawn from the National Minimum Data Set for Social Care, and included 80,000 samples of workers. The paper examined the changing profile of three closely related third-age cohorts and investigate the similarities and differences between those working in the care sector aged 60 years or older, and two younger age groups, namely 50-54 and 55-59 years. Analysis revealed that workers in the age range 50-75 years constitute nearly 40% of the whole workforce. In particular, the impact of the oldest third-age group, aged 60-75 years, is substantial, contributing to around 12% of the total. The implications of this diversity are explored.

Journal article

Age-related stigma and the golden section hypothesis

Authors:
WIDRICK Rebekah M., RASKIN Jonathan D.
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 14(4), May 2010, pp.375-385.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

The golden section hypothesis suggests that people follow a consistent blueprint of cognitive organisation when interpreting sensory information, predicting that they assign positive adjectives 61.8% of the time and negative adjectives 38.2% of the time. However, when considering stigmatised identities, a reverse golden section pattern results. This study investigated whether people interpreted identities associated with old age in a reverse golden section hypothesis, assigning negative ratings 61.8% of the time and positive ratings 38.2% of the time. A golden section survey was completed online by 148 participants, all of whom were university students with a mean age of 23 years. Along the top of the survey were 15 identities: child, elderly person, grandparent, middle-aged adult, nurse, musician, adolescent, senior citizen, business person, lawyer, secretary, mental patient, homeless person, retired person, and self. On the left side of the survey were 12 adjective pairs with well-established positive and negative poles: generous-stingy, pleasant-unpleasant, true-false, fair-unfair, active-passive, energetic-lethargic, sharp-dull, excitable-calm, strong-weak, bold-timid, hard-soft, and rugged-delicate. The results showed that the elderly person and senior citizen were rated in a manner consistent with the reverse golden section hypothesis. The self was rated positively precisely 71% of the time, and combined ratings of the remaining identities were consistent with the traditional golden section hypothesis. A prior finding that mental patient and homeless person would produce a reverse golden section pattern was not replicated. The article concludes that, because American society has coupled aging to stigma, people have come to associate negative connotations with certain age-related terms.

Journal article

The development and validity of the age-based rejection sensitivity questionnaire

Authors:
KANG Sonia K., CHASTEEN Alison L.
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 49(3), June 2009, pp.303-316.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

There is much evidence suggesting that older adults are often negatively affected by aging stereotypes; however, no method to identify individual differences in vulnerability to these effects has yet been developed. This study aimed to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire to measure individual differences in the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to age-based rejection among older adults: the Age-Based Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ-Age). A pilot sample of older adults was asked to identify situations in which negative outcomes related to being an older adult might occur. From these responses, 58 scenarios representing 8 domains and themes were identified. Thirty initial items were created from this pool of scenarios, and this 30-item RSQ-Age underwent intensive testing and refinement to create the final 15-item RSQ-Age. The 15-item RSQ-Age was assessed for internal and test–retest reliability, as well as construct validity. Results revealed that the RSQ-Age has good internal and test–retest, reliability and is a valid measure of age-based rejection sensitivity (RS). Construct validity was supported by correlations with personal RS, age-based stigma consciousness, self-consciousness, awareness of ageism, and self-esteem. The RSQ-Age is a useful measure for researchers and health care workers interested in the relationships between expectancy, perceptions, and reactions to age-based stigma and subsequent cognitive, behavioural, and health-related consequences.

Book Full text available online for free

Coming of age: first report of the Older People's Commissioner for Wales 2008

Author:
OLDER PEOPLE'S COMMISSIONER FOR WALES
Publisher:
Older People's Commissioner for Wales
Publication year:
2008
Pagination:
12p.
Place of publication:
Cardiff

The Commission launched Coming of Age, its first report to the First Minister for Wales, Rhodri Morgan on 1st October 2008, on the UN International Day for Older People. The Commissioner for Older People (Wales) Act 2006 requested the publication of a report at this stage, but as the Older People’s Commission for Wales has not been in existence for a full year, the report does not contain the typical financial and corporate statements you would expect to see in an Annual Report. The report instead contains information on why and how the Commissioner role was created, how older people have and will be involved in the work of the Commission, as well as what the Commission intends to achieve in the forthcoming year

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