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Journal article

Elderly volunteering and psychological well-being

Author:
HO Hua-Chin
Journal article citation:
International Social Work, 60(4), 2017, pp.1028-1038.
Publisher:
Sage

This study was designed to construct a model based on the concept of psychological well-being, in order to verify the relationship between Taiwanese elderly volunteering and their psychological well-being. Research data were collected via a questionnaire administered to the target population of this study, senior residents of Pingtung County aged 65 or more. The data were then tested and verified by confirmative factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The overall model showed higher levels of psychological well-being for the elderly who participated in volunteer work than those who did not, which again confirmed the positive relation between volunteer work and psychological well-being. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Do adults adjust their socio-economic status identity in later life?

Authors:
CORNMAN Jennifer C., et al
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 32(4), May 2012, pp.616-633.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

An adult’s socio-economic status (SES) identity is shaped by objective measures of status (such as educational attainment, occupational prestige, income and assets), socio-cultural influences and psychological attributes. Research has shown that SES predicts current and future wellbeing. The aim of this study was to examine whether SES identity in later life changes over time. The study uses 2 assessments of subjective social status measured 6 years apart in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese adults. Data was taken from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS), focusing on 694 respondents who were interviewed in both SEBAS I (2000) and SEBAS II (2006). The findings showed that, during the 6-year study period, many older Taiwanese adults reassessed their SES identity. However, most respondents showed small to moderate levels of change. Females, more highly educated respondents, and those who have a positive economic outlook tended to revise their subjective social status upward relative to their respective counterparts; those who become widowed during the period adjusted their rankings downward compared with those who did not become widowed. These findings suggest that SES identity may be dynamic.

Journal article

The relationship between exercise participation and well-being of the retired elderly

Authors:
LEE Yi-Ju, HUNG Wei-Li
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 15(7), September 2011, pp.873-881.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

In Taiwan there is a popular culture among the elderly of doing exercise in public parks and squares in the early morning. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between exercise intensity, exercise frequency and the feelings of well-being of the retired elderly. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 6 parks in Taipei from February to April 2007. A total of 352 valid questionnaires were collected. The survey found that the retired elderly participate in a wide range of sports, from light exercise such as walking to vigorous exercise such as tennis and aerobics, and their participation frequency was very high. Most of the respondents (87.2%) were defined as having positive well-being. The results showed that exercise frequency and well-being were positively correlated. However, a negative correlation was found between exercise intensity and well-being. Most of the activities participated in by the elderly were in the categories of moderate or vigorous intensity. The study suggests that the elderly felt more comfortable and gained more pleasure psychologically while participating in less intensive exercise. The article concludes by recommending that the retired elderly should take exercise as frequently as possible, but that low-to-moderate intensity exercise might be better for their psychological well-being.

Journal article

Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia

Authors:
LIN Li-Chan, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(10), October 2010, pp.953-959.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study aimed to construct a training protocol for spaced retrieval (SR). It also investigated the effectiveness of SR and Montessori-based activities in decreasing eating difficulty in older residents with dementia. Eighty-five residents with dementia were chosen from three special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The institutions were randomised into three groups: spaced retrieval; Montessori-based activities; and a control group. The invention consisted of three 30 to 40 min sessions per week, for 8 weeks. Results revealed that after the intervention, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia scores and assisted feeding scores for the SR and Montessori-based activity groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the frequencies of physical assistance and verbal assistance for the Montessori-based activity group were significantly higher than that of the control group, suggesting residents who received Montessori-based activity needed more physical and verbal assistance during mealtimes. In conclusion, this study confirmed the efficacy of SR and Montessori-based activities for eating difficulty and eating ability.

Journal article

Clinically significant non-major depression in a community-dwelling elderly population: epidemiological findings

Authors:
CHEN Cheng-Sheng, CHONG Mian-Yoon, TSANG Hin-Yeung
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(6), June 2007, pp.557-562.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The aim of this study was to investigate the 1-month prevalence, symptom profiles and demographic correlates in late-life clinically significant non-major depression (CSNMD) among a community-dwelling elderly population. One thousand five hundred subjects aged 65 years and older, who were randomly selected from three communities in Taiwan, received comprehensive psychiatric assessment by trained psychiatrists. Two categorical diagnoses of depressive disorder, including major depression and CSNMD, were made. The 1-month prevalence was calculated. Frequencies of depressive symptoms across CSNMD and major depression were compared. The risks of CSNMD based on demographic characteristics were estimated using multinominal logistic regression. The 1-month prevalence of CSNMD among the community-dwelling elderly was 8.8%. Symptoms of diminished interest, appetite changes, sleep disturbance, worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, trouble in concentrating or indecisiveness, and suicidal thoughts or acts were less frequent in CSNMD than in major depression, but symptoms of depressed mood, psychomotor changes, and fatigue or loss of energy were as frequent in both categories of illness. CSNMD shares similar demographic risks, such as living in an urban area, female gender and low educational status, with major depression. CSNMD is common among community-dwelling elders in Taiwan, and with its identical demographic characteristics, but qualitatively different presentation, the authors suggest CSNMD may be considered part of a spectrum of severe late life depressions with a distinct manifestation. Major depression and CSNMD may share common demographic characteristics with different manifestation. It is concluded that late-life depression is a dimensional disease.

Journal article

Socio-demographic and other characteristics in persons 50 years and older with HIV/AIDS in five countries

Authors:
NOKES Kathleen M., et al
Journal article citation:
Global Ageing, 4(2), August 2006, pp.5-13.

This article describes socio-demographic and HIV-related characteristics of people aged 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS in Columbia, Norway, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, and the United States. The article is based on findings from a small cross-national study where participants completed an extensive socio-demographic survey. The sample consisted of 175 people from the United States, 10 from Puerto Rico, 17 from Taiwan, 19 from Norway and 9 from Colombia.

Journal article

Prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms among community-dwelling elders in Taiwan

Authors:
TSAI Yun-Fang, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(11), November 2005, pp.1097-1102.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Depression in the elderly has become a serious health care issue worldwide. However, no studies have determined the prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms among a representative sample of community-dwelling elders in Taiwan. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms among community-dwelling elders in Taiwan. Stratified random sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of 1200 elderly participants from northern, middle, southern, and eastern regions of Taiwan. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 27.5%. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that having a respiratory disease, poor cognitive function, poor social support network, dissatisfaction with living situation, perception of poor health status, and perceived income inadequacy were significant predictors of depressive symptoms in this sample. The risk factors for depression identified in this study need to be considered when assessing the health of elderly persons. In addition, interventions to reduce depressive symptoms in elders should include strategies to change some of these modifiable risk factors.

Journal article

Community care in Taiwan: mere talk, no policy

Authors:
CHOU Yueh-Ching, KROGER Teppo
Journal article citation:
Social Work in Mental Health, 2(2/3), 2004, pp.139-155.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This article explores the policy definitions and the funder roles of central and local governments in community care in Taiwan. The notion of community care has been adopted in Taiwan following the model of Hong Kong but the main question of the article is whether this has resulted in actual service provisions at the community level, forming an alternative to institutional care. The data has been collected from several sources: policy documents, official statistics, surveys, general reports, funding provision reports, and empirical studies. The results show that neither central nor local authorities are seriously involved in caring for elderly people or persons with disabilities in Taiwan's communities. In Taiwan, community care for these groups of people still means, in practice, informal care provided by female family members without any support from public policies. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580)

Journal article

Organisatons working together to protect the elderly in Taiwan

Author:
LIN Li-Wen
Journal article citation:
Journal of Social Service Research, 4(30), 2004, pp.19-50.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This paper uses a network approach to examine the coordination of protective services for the elderly in Taipei City, Taiwan. The purposes of this study are to map the characteristics of network structures, and compare the different relational patterns and organizational roles. It also examines perspectives of organizations toward the factors that facilitate or impede service coordination for the protective services. The results show that patterns of interorganizational coordination do depend on the kind of resources being exchanged. Public agencies were the most central agencies in the protective service network. This article provides implications and guidelines for public policy-makers and organizations to establish effective service coordination to protect the elderly. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street Binghamton, NY 13904-1580)

Journal article

The longitudinal relationship between mental health disorders and chronic disease for older adults: a population-based study

Authors:
CHEN Chun-Min, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 32(9), 2017, pp.1017-1026.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Objective: Although mental health disorders in older adults are common, their relationship with chronic disease and the influence of chronic disease on the development of mental health disorders over time is not well understood. This longitudinal study investigated the change in status of mental health disorders and chronic disease, as well as their interrelationships, over time. Methods: Participants included community-dwelling older adults living in Taiwan, aged 65 years or older, who completed six waves of survey interviews. Mental health disorders were scored using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule, and chronic disease(s) status was recorded during consecutive biennial data collection waves. The autoregressive latent trajectory model and parallel latent growth curve model were used for data analysis. Results: The study findings suggest that in older people pre-existing mental health disorders and/or chronic disease(s) will predispose them to developing significantly more mental health disorders and/or chronic diseases respectively. The study findings also suggest that pre-existing mental health disorders can significantly contribute to the development of chronic disease over time, and that pre-existing chronic disease(s) significantly can contribute to the development of mental health disorders over time, indicating a reciprocal interrelationship. Conclusions: The authors' findings suggest that it in addition to monitoring and treating chronic disease(s) in older people, it is also important to monitor and treat their mental health disorders. Doing so will result in overall better health outcomes and will facilitate a better quality of life as they age. (Publisher abstract)

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