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Journal article

Subtle imitation behaviour in convenience samples of normal, demented, and currently depressed elderly subjects

Authors:
von GUNTEN Armin, DUC Rene
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(6), June 2007, pp.568-573.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The clinical significance of imitation behaviour (IB) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of subtle naïve and obstinate IB in convenience samples of normal elderly, demented, and depressed subjects. Subtle IB was assessed using a protocol constructed ad hoc in 146 patients, consecutively referred to a memory clinic having received an ICD-10 diagnosis of either dementia or depression, and in 241 healthy subjects. The prevalence of IB in the three groups was determined and the association with possible demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables analysed. Subtle naïve IB was frequent in the elderly with dementia, intermediate in the depressed, and rare in the normal elderly except that the latter frequently stretched out their arms. Obstinate IB never occurred in the normal elderly. IB was predicted by none of the variables used. The groups included were convenience samples with the depressed being a small group precluding further distinction of depressive subtypes. Although naïve IB is a frequent clinical feature in the demented, it also accompanies depressive disorders in the elderly. It can be observed as context-specific IB in the normal elderly. Obstinate IB does not occur in the normal elderly.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Prisons should mirror society: the debate on age-segregated housing for older prisoners

Authors:
WANGAMO Tenzin, et al
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 37(4), 2017, pp.675-694.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

The debate on age-segregated housing for older prisoners has seldom captured the perspectives of older prisoners and professionals (‘stakeholders’) working in a European prison setting. To address this gap in the research, 35 older prisoners from Switzerland and 40 stakeholders from three European countries (including Switzerland) were interviewed for the study. Data analysis was conducted thematically, and the validity of coding was established independently from the primary author. Interpretation of study results was agreed upon by all authors. Participants' opinions regarding age-segregated housing for older prisoners were split. An almost equal number of prisoners and stakeholders had similar arguments in favour of and against such living arrangements. The findings encompassed three major themes: ‘prisons should mirror society’ and thus age-mixed housing was preferable as it ensured generational exchange; a ‘separate unit within the prison’ would allow continuity of personal and other relationships and at the same time respond to older prisoners' specific health and environmental needs; finally, participants felt it was important to think critically about ‘the criteria’ for placing older prisoners in an age-segregated arrangement. The study concludes that the debate on consolidated versus separate housing is divided. Any push towards segregation based only on high prison violence and unvalidated context-specific information may result in unreliable public policy. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Personality traits are associated with acute major depression across the age spectrum

Authors:
WEBER Kerstin, et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 16(4), May 2012, pp.472-480.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Personality traits have been shown to be related both to increased risk of depression and also to depression recovery. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and major depression in 2 samples of young and old depressed outpatients in 2 age-matched groups. The study involved comparisons amongst 79 outpatients with major depression and 102 healthy controls. Two sub-groups of patients were determined: young (25–50 years) and old (60–85 years). The participants were assessed utilising the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), socio-demographic variables, physical health status, and depression features. The findings indicate that depressed patients show significantly higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness compared to controls. The levels of neuroticism did not allow for differentiating late-life from young age depression. Increased physical burden and decreased depression severity were the main predictors for this distinction. The data indicate that personality factors and depression are related, independently of patients’ age. They also stress the need to consider physical health, level of dependency and severity of symptoms when studying the relationship between personality traits and mood disorders.

Book Full text available online for free

Housing our Ageing Population: Panel for Innovation

Authors:
HOMES AND COMMUNITIES AGENCY, GREAT BRITAIN. Department of Health, GREAT BRITAIN. Department for Communities and Local Government
Publisher:
Homes and Communities Agency
Publication year:
2009
Pagination:
59p.
Place of publication:
London

Following the Lifetime Homes, Lifetime Neighbourhoods national strategy report, the Housing our Ageing Population: Panel for Innovation was established in 2009 to examine what further reform is needed to ensure that new build specialised housing meets the needs and aspirations of the older people of the future. This report brings together the findings and recommendations of the panel, which focused on improving the quality of life of the ageing population by influencing the availability and choice of high-quality sustainable homes and neighbourhoods, challenging the perceptions of mainstream and specialised housing for older people, raising the aspirations of older people to demand higher quality more sustainable homes, and spreading awareness of the possibilities offered through innovative design of housing and neighbourhoods. It highlights key design recommendations, offers case studies from London, Bristol, York, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Sweden, proposes further work, links to parallel studies that emphasise the role of place making in enhancing quality of life, and forms the basis of advice to government ministers.

Journal article

Longitudinal assessment of psychotherapeutic day hospital treatment for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia

Authors:
WEBER Kerstin, et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 13(1), January 2009, pp.92-98.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) of dementia are associated with more rapid cognitive deterioration as well as increased caregiver stress. The effectiveness of psychiatric day hospital care for this condition remains disputed. This study reports on the assessment of a psychotherapeutic day hospital program in a series of elderly people with dementia and concomitant BPSD. The day hospital program combined music, movement, psychodynamic group therapies, sociotherapy as well as individual interviews and family interventions. Participants were 76 individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Outcome measures were the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Therapeutic Community Assessment scale including staff (SAS) and client assessments (CAS) and a Group Evaluation Scale (GES) were administrated at admission, 3, 6 and 12 months and discharge. Linear regression analysis showed that SAS (but not CAS) and GES scores significantly increased while the NPI total scores decreased across the different time points. NPI item score modifications were significant for anxiety and apathy. These changes remained significant when demographic variables, drug treatment changes and occurrence of life events were also considered. It is concluded that a psychotherapeutic day hospital program designed for older people with dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms allows for a significant reduction of anxiety and apathy, better adhesion to therapeutic community treatment and clinical progress in group therapy. Controlled interventional studies are needed to further confirm these data.

Journal article

Longitudinal assessment of psychotherapeutic day hospital treatment for elderly patients with depression

Authors:
CANUTO Alessandra, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(9), September 2008, pp.949-956.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Although previous studies suggested that psychiatric day hospital care is a valuable alternative to inpatient treatment, its effectiveness for elderly patients is disputed. Small number of cases, poor definition of the psychotherapeutic setting, and absence of systematic assessment at different time points may explain the observed discrepancies. This study performed an assessment of a psychiatric day hospital treatment combining individual and group psychotherapy in a series of 122 elderly depressed outpatients. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Short Form Survey, as well as a Therapeutic Community Assessment Scale and Group Evaluation Scale were repeated at admission, 3, 6, 12 months and discharge. The day hospital program was based on psychotherapeutic treatment combining individual and group settings. All patients presented with major depression or a depressive episode of bipolar disease. Variables included severity of depressive symptoms, quality of life, adhesion to therapeutic community treatment and progress in groups of psychotherapy, art-therapy, and psychomotricity. There was a significant reduction of depressive symptoms, and improvement in mental quality of life across all time points studied. Adhesion to therapeutic community increased from admission to discharge. This was also the case for the progress in group therapy for all three groups used, yet the evolution of this parameter at intermediate time points was highly variable. Neither demographic characteristics, nor pharmacological treatment or presence of stressful life events predicted the clinical improvement. Psychotherapeutic care program in day hospitals may improve clinical status and quality of life in elderly depressed patients.

Journal article

The Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales (PAS): psychometric properties in French and German speaking populations

Authors:
MACKINNON Andrew, MULLIGAN Reinhild
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(9), September 2001, pp.892-899.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Investigates the structure and measurement properties of the Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales (PAS) in a community sample, studies the performance of French and German translations of the PAS, determines the power of PAS scales to discriminate dementia and depression diagnosed to DSM-IV criteria. The measures were gathered as part of a large community survey. Responses to PAS items were obtained in the course of the administration of the Canberra Interview for the Elderly. Demographic variables, the mini-mental state examination and measures of premorbid intelligence robust to current intellectual impairment were also gathered in the course of the survey. There were 465 participants from Zurich and 456 from Geneva. Concludes that the study supports the PAS as a valid and reliable summary of the status of older persons with respect to the impairments, changes and symptomatology that lie at the core of dementing and depressive disorders. This study not only supports the results found in the original development sample, but demonstrates that it performs well against DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and amongst speakers of French and German.

Book

Growing older in the community: European projects in housing and planning

Authors:
BRECH Joachim, POTTER Philip
Publisher:
Anchor Housing Trust/Wohnbund
Publication year:
1994
Pagination:
197p.,tables,illus.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Oxford

Research report looking at how meeting the care and housing needs of older people, to enable them to live in the community for as long as possible, is being tackled by European countries.

Book

Health expectancy: first workshop of the International Healthy Life Expectancy Network (REVES)

Editors:
ROBINE Jean-Marie, BLANCHET Madeleine, DOWD John
Publisher:
HMSO
Publication year:
1992
Pagination:
188p.,tables.
Place of publication:
London

Looks at various studies devoted to disability-free life expectancy. Part 1 contains papers on: expectation of life without disability measured from OPCS disability surveys; summary of results of calculation of life expectancy free of disability in the Netherlands 1981-85; Health expectancy in Quebec 1987; recent values of disability-free life expectancy in the United States; health expectancy in Canada; data from Switzerland. Part 2 contains papers on the different types of disability-free life expectancy and the methods of calculation. Part 3 examines the interpretation of these calculations and part 4 at the uses of disability-free life expectancy.

Book

Regulating long-term care quality: an international comparison

Editors:
MOR Vincent, LEONE Tiziana, MARESSO Anna
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication year:
2014
Pagination:
519
Place of publication:
Cambridge

This edited book provides a comprehensive international survey of long-term care provision and regulation, built around a series of case studies from Europe, North America and Asia. The analytical framework allows the different approaches that countries have adopted to be compared side by side and readers are encouraged to consider which quality assurance approaches might best meet their own country's needs. Wider issues underpinning the need to regulate the quality of long-term care are also discussed. The book is aimed at policymakers working in the health care sector, researchers and students taking graduate courses on health policy and management. (Edited publisher abstract)

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