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Journal article

Elder abuse in Portugal: findings from the first national prevalence study

Authors:
GIL Ana Paula Martins, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 27(3), 2015, pp.174-195.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

In this study, the authors present findings of the Portuguese national prevalence study, “Aging and Violence,” the purpose of which was to estimate the prevalence of abuse and neglect of older people in family settings over a 12-month period and examine the relationship between abuse and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Through a telephone survey of a representative probability sample (N = 1,123), the authors evaluated 12 abusive behaviours and demographic data. Overall, 12.3% of older adults experienced elder abuse in family settings. The prevalence rates of specific types were as follows: psychological, 6.3%; financial, 6.3%; physical, 2.3%; neglect, 0.4%; and sexual, 0.2%. Logistic regression was employed to determine the relationship between abuse and covariates. The study suggests that education level, age, and functional status are significantly associated with abuse. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of elder abuse and understanding of victim and perpetrator characteristics are fundamental to designing effective strategies for prevention and intervention. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Coping with the caregiving role: differences between primary and secondary caregivers of dependent elderly people

Authors:
BARBOSA Ana, et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 15(4), May 2011, pp.490-499.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

The coping strategies employed by primary carers of older people are well researched. However, little is known about secondary carers, who often share caring responsibilities. The Portuguese version of the of Caregivers' Assessment Management Index was administered to 90 primary carers, and 90 secondary carers in the Aveiro district of Portugal. Results indicate that emotion-cognitive strategies are less efficient for secondary caregivers. Common problem-solving strategies adopted by both types of caregivers involve relying on own their experience and expertise and addressing and finding a solution to the problem. Neither group were highly efficient at managing care-related stress, but both identified benefits from taking time off. The authors conclude that engaging secondary caregivers in available interventions is of paramount interest, as they can reduce the burden of primary carers and help delay institutionalisation for older people.

Journal article

Older male carers and the positive aspects of care

Authors:
RIBEIRO Oscar, PAUL Constanca
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 28(2), February 2008, pp.165-183.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

Drawing on data from in-depth personal interviews, this Portuguese study analyses the positive statements in the personal descriptions of the care-giving experience of 53 elderly men who were caring for chronically-ill wives. It also explores the differences between the positive references made by the men who were caring for a wife who had dementia and those made by men whose wives had physical impairments. Using open coding and content analysis, positive aspects were identified in 32 of the 53 care-giving situations. The most prevalent themes were ‘satisfaction’ and ‘perceived social honour’. The findings show that positive returns from the caring experience and role were strongly associated with previous good marital relationships and the husband's good self-rated health, and manifested in both specific coping strategies and global and situational meaning-making processes. The study demonstrates that much more can be learnt about the positive dimensions of care in older men's lives, and that such understanding can inform and strengthen formal and therapeutic support.

Book

The economics of care of the elderly

Authors:
PACOLET Jozef, WILDERCOM Celeste
Publisher:
Avebury
Publication year:
1991
Pagination:
241p.,tables,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Aldershot

Set of papers given at a colloquium in March 1990 in Brussels, where a group of economists presented their theoretical and empirical progress on an EC initiated project on the care of elderly people. Divided into 4 parts: part 1: the ageing population and the organisation of the welfare state: macro economic analysis; part 2: significance of informal care of elderly people; part 3: how to meet the needs of elderly people: relevance of micro-economic analysis; and part 4: policy formation for older people. This section includes comparative studies of Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, West Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.

Journal article

Social work and intervention with older people in Portugal: a critical point of view

Author:
CARVALHO Maria Irene
Journal article citation:
European Journal of Social Work, 17(3), 2014, pp.336-352.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Even before ageing became a challenge to society, it already was for social work professionals. What interested the social work professionals were the older people who accumulated low incomes, poverty, loneliness, isolation, disease and several outbuildings. The increasing number of older and much older people reconfigured the intervention of professionals in this area. This intervention is in accordance with the policies of the welfare state, based on the rights and human dignity and a paradigm of social development oriented to social cohesion. The professionals are now responsible for older people policies in social and health care areas. The article includes an analysis of the relationship between social work, ageing and policies for older people and some exploratory results obtained through the analysis of relevant documents that allowed us to characterise the field of social work intervention with older people in the social security system and field of social action. This integrated analysis in a context of economic crisis takes a critical perspective on the impacts of reconfiguration policies for the older people and social work in those days. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Understanding obstacles to the recognition of and response to dementia in different European countries: a modified focus group approach using multinational, multi-disciplinary expert groups

Authors:
ILIFFE S., et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 9(1), January 2005, pp.1-6.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Experts from eight European countries (Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom) and the disciplines of clinical psychology, general practice, geriatric medicine, old age psychiatry, medical sociology, nursing and voluntary body organisation met in 2003 to explore obstacles to recognition of and response to dementia in general practice within Europe. A modified focus group methodology was used in this exploratory process. Groups were conducted over a two-day period, with five sessions lasting 1-1.5 hours each. An adapted nominal group method was used to record themes arising from the group discussion, and these themes were used in a grounded theory approach to generate explanations for delayed recognition of and response to dementia. The overarching theme that arose from the focus groups was movement, which had three different expressions. These were: population movement and its consequences for localities, services and professional experience; the journey of the person with dementia along the disease process; and the referral pathway to access services and support. Change is the core issue in dementia care, with multiple pathways of change that need to be understood at clinical and organisational levels. Practitioners and people with dementia are engaged in managing emotional, social and physical risks, making explicit risk management a potentially important component of dementia care. The boundary between generalist and specialist services is a particular problem, with great potential for dysfunctionality. Stigma and ageism are variably distributed phenomena both within and between countries.

Journal article

Caregiving in transition in Southern Europe: neither complete altruists nor free-riders

Authors:
SIMONI Simonetta, TRIFILETTI Rossana
Journal article citation:
Social Policy and Administration, 38(6), December 2004, pp.678-705.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

In the framework of the SOCCARE Project, focusing on families dealing with a double front of care for children and frail elderly people, similarities can be found in Italy, France and Portugal beyond their different welfare regimes. The comparison of family histories and caregiving strategies, by the methodology of case-matching, gives an interesting overview of the relationship between the debate on social care and that on the intergenerational contract. The paper aims to understand which are the available combinations of family, informal and institutional resources making a heavy burden of care “acceptable and still normal”: this focuses both typical situations of each country and common features through the countries. The results show how changes in the representations of obligation and duty in the intergenerational pact produce different outcomes and demands in welfare systems. The analysis of shifting boundaries between the public and private spheres in care provides useful policy recommendations, aimed at improving choices and “sustainable” responsibilities of individuals, families and social networks. Sustainable policies seem to be more dependent on family and structural types and resources of networks than on different welfare and services support.

Journal article

Lifetime abuse and quality of life among older people

Authors:
FRAGA Silvia, et al
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Work, 42(4), 2017, pp.215-222.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Few studies have evaluated the impact of lifetime abuse on quality of life (QoL) among older adults. By using a multinational study authors aimed to assess the subjective perception of QoL among people who have reported abuse during the course of their lifetime. The respondents (N = 4,467; 2,559 women) were between the ages of 60 and 84 years and living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Lifetime abuse was assessed by using a structured questionnaire that allowed to assess lifetime experiences of abuse. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old module. After adjustment for potential confounders, authors found that to have had any abusive experience decreased the score of sensory abilities. Psychological abuse was associated with lower autonomy and past, present, and future activities. Physical abuse with injuries significantly decreased social participation. Intimacy was also negatively associated with psychological abuse, physical abuse with injury, and sexual abuse. The results of this study provide evidence that older people exposed to abuse during their lifetime have a significant reduction in QoL, with several QoL domains being negatively affected. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Perception of risk of adverse outcomes of older people: comparison between nursing homes, day centers and home care services

Authors:
TEIXEIRA Laetitia, et al
Journal article citation:
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, 18(3), 2017, pp.212-220.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: In Portugal, the three main kinds of care services available for older people are nursing homes, day centres and home care services. The use of these care services is mostly based on complex socioeconomic and functional criteria; however it is not clear if this placement corresponds to a higher/lower risk of adverse outcomes. The purposes of this paper are: to characterise clients of each type of service; to estimate the proportion of individuals at perceived risk of each adverse outcome according to type of service; to assess the ability of the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) to identify the risk profiles according to type of service. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprised individuals aged 65+ (n=224), receiving care at home, in day centres or in nursing homes. The identification of individuals at risk for three adverse outcomes (institutionalisation, hospitalisation and death) was performed using a short pre-screen instrument (RISC). Findings: The RISC identified mental state issues as the unique factor that differentiated clients according the type of care services (χ2 (6, N=224)=20.96, p=0.002), with day centre presenting the lowest percentage of mental health concerns and nursing home presenting the highest percentage (44.44 and 71.91 percent, respectively). Additionally, a gradient was found between perceived risk of adverse outcomes (institutionalisation and hospitalisation) and care of levels required. Originality/value: The RISC can be used to discriminate people in different settings of care and can be helpful in the selection of groups at risk that will benefit more from available services. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Training needs in the area of aging for social professionals and senior population in Portugal

Authors:
GONCLAVES Marta, CARAMELO Sergio, RIBEIRO Jose Almeida
Journal article citation:
Working with Older People, 20(1), 2016, pp.23-29.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how the Institute of Public and Social Policies could be useful for Portuguese society in terms of post-graduate training in the area of ageing. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted two focus groups (n=11), one with professionals of one large and three medium size social organisations, and the other with managers of three large, two medium and two small size social, health and civil rights organisations which support the elderly population. While the specific aim of the first focus group was to identify the ageing training needs of professionals, who work with assistance/support to the elderly population, the aim of the second group was to identify the training interests of the retired or pre-retired elderly population. Findings: The results show on the one hand professional’s main challenges in working with elderly population in Portugal, their training needs and what exactly could be an adequate training for them in the area of aging as compared to the existing ones, and on the other hand who are the strongly committed elderly people, what are their training needs and what could exactly be for them an adequate training in the area of ageing as compared to the existing ones. Research limitations/implications: The authors can conclude that both social professionals and senior population in Portugal have a need for a post-graduate training in the area of aging. Practical implications: Only by humanisation at multilevel and a specific training for professionals and for families will we be able to deliver the opportunities and support that the citizens will need to enable them to age well across the life course. Social implications: Given the rapidly changing and complex demography of Portugal it is essential to give attention to training in rethinking the support of the elderly population in Portugal. Originality/value: The authors need to develop empowerment and social inclusion of the elderly population in the society. (Edited publisher abstract)

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