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Journal article

Responsibility for child and elderly care: who should cover the costs? A comparison of Baltic and Nordic countries

Authors:
GARCIA-FAROLDI Livia, DE MIGUEL-LUKEN Veronica, AYUSO Luis
Journal article citation:
Social Policy and Administration, 51(4), 2017, pp.638-658.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Using data from the International Social Survey Programme (2012), this study compares public attitudes towards who should cover the costs of caring for children and older people in five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Denmark) and two Baltic ones (Latvia and Lithuania). The study found interesting differences between both groups of nations: citizens from Baltic countries consider the role of the family more important than their counterparts in Nordic countries. Results show Latvians holding the most familistic views in terms of covering costs, and Swedish people the least. Individual socio-demographic variables are less important than national contexts in explaining these attitudes. The article finds important variations among the social-democratic countries and, surprisingly, in the case of childcare, Sweden shows higher differences to Denmark than to Latvia and Lithuania. This finding suggests that the social-democratic bloc in this respect is more heterogeneous than what is generally thought. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Long-term care in Denmark and Lithuania: a most dissimilar case

Authors:
POSKUTE Virginija, GREVE Bent
Journal article citation:
Social Policy and Administration, 51(4), 2017, pp.659-675.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

By comparing the systems and development in Lithuania and Denmark, the article probes into differences and similarities in two countries with very different welfare states belonging to different welfare regimes and having very diverse economic and historical development of a specific social policy area – i.e. long-term care (LTC) for the elderly. Despite differences, there are also similarities in the understanding of what LTC is and could be in the future, given the economic pressure on welfare states. So despite being a country-based case analysis of a specific social service field, at the outset, seemingly dissimilar, the analysis also shows similarities especially in the expectation of the role of the civil society, and that the elderly will want to stay as long as possible in their own home. There is also expected pressure from demography change, and, especially, a possible pressure on women as they, more often than men, provide informal care and will have a higher risk of living alone when they become elderly. Lastly, the use of rehabilitation and re-enablement is a central parameter for a possible reduction in the pressure on spending as well as improving quality of life for the elderly. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Ageing and health status in adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the European Pomona II study

Authors:
HAVEMAN Meindert, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 36(1), March 2011, pp.49-60.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

POMONA II was a European Commission funded public health project collecting information from 14 countries using a set of key health indicators specifically relevant for people with intellectual disabilities. This research focused on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators. The article describes how information was collected using the POMONA Health Interview Survey and Evaluation Form from a sample of 1,253 participants in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It then presents the results of the analysis, with tables showing characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities in the study, frequency of social contacts with relatives or friends according to age, lifestyle risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities according to age, and general and age-specific prevalence rates of health problems. The authors discuss how healthy older adults with intellectual disabilities are with regard to lifestyle factors, and whether there are health disparities between older adults with and without intellectual disabilities. They note that some evidence of health disparities was found for older people with intellectual disabilities, particularly in terms of under diagnosed or inadequately managed preventable health conditions.

Journal article

Lifetime abuse and quality of life among older people

Authors:
FRAGA Silvia, et al
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Work, 42(4), 2017, pp.215-222.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Few studies have evaluated the impact of lifetime abuse on quality of life (QoL) among older adults. By using a multinational study authors aimed to assess the subjective perception of QoL among people who have reported abuse during the course of their lifetime. The respondents (N = 4,467; 2,559 women) were between the ages of 60 and 84 years and living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Lifetime abuse was assessed by using a structured questionnaire that allowed to assess lifetime experiences of abuse. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old module. After adjustment for potential confounders, authors found that to have had any abusive experience decreased the score of sensory abilities. Psychological abuse was associated with lower autonomy and past, present, and future activities. Physical abuse with injuries significantly decreased social participation. Intimacy was also negatively associated with psychological abuse, physical abuse with injury, and sexual abuse. The results of this study provide evidence that older people exposed to abuse during their lifetime have a significant reduction in QoL, with several QoL domains being negatively affected. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Attitudes of staff members towards development of elder care organizations: the role of leadership effectiveness in private and public sectors

Authors:
ENDRIULAITIENE Aukse, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Public Leadership, 13(1), 2017, pp.5-8.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how perceived leadership effectiveness is related to staff members’ attitudes towards development of elderly care organizations in private and public institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted using self-report questionnaire that contained Modified Leadership Effectiveness Questionnaire (Heck et al., 2000), the scale of attitude towards change from Preziosi’s Organizational Diagnosis Model (1980) and organizational development intentions measure developed for the study. The respondents were 510 Lithuanian social workers and other staff members employed in different public and private elderly care organizations. Findings: The results revealed that perceived higher leadership effectiveness was associated with more positive employees’ judgements on organization’s readiness to change both in private and public sector elderly care organizations. But perceived leadership effectiveness was not associated with staff members’ intentions to change. Also it was found that different models for private and public sector that explained the importance of particular leadership behaviours in the prediction of employees’ judgements on organizational change and intentions to change were valid. Originality/value: This study may add to further broaden knowledge on attitudes of staff members towards development of elderly care organization and the role of leadership effectiveness taking into account the type of organization. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Perpetrators of abuse against older women: a multi-national study in Europe

Authors:
DONDER Liesbeth De, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Adult Protection, 13(6), 2011, pp.302-314.
Publisher:
Emerald

Results from part of the prevalence study Abuse and Violence against Older Women in Europe, conducted in Finland, Austria, Belgium, Lithuania and Portugal in 2010, are presented in this paper. The study focused on home-dwelling women aged 60 years or older and included interviews with 2,880 older women. This paper explores the findings concerning perpetrators of abuse among older women living in the community and whether differences between perpetrators of different forms of abuse could be detected. The results showed that 28.1% of older women reported experiencing at least one kind of violence and abuse in their own home in the last 12 months by someone who was close to them. The findings indicated that emotional abuse occurs most often, followed by financial abuse, and that the current partner or spouse most often commits the abuse, but that depending on the type of abuse different perpetrators are more likely. The paper includes tables showing rates of different kinds of abuse and perpetrators of abuse, including types of abuse, levels of severity, and victim characteristics.

Journal article

Psychological abuse among older persons in Europe: a cross-sectional study

Authors:
MACASSA Gloria, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Aggression Conflict and Peace Research, 5(1), 2013, pp.16-34.
Publisher:
Emerald

There is evidence to suggest that the rate of elder abuse in all its forms is growing. However, because of the difficulty of measuring it, psychological abuse may be underestimated. This cross sectional study used data collected in 2009 as part of the survey “Elder abuse: a multinational prevalence survey, ABUEL”. The participants were 4,467 randomly selected persons aged 60-84 years (2,559 women, 57.3 per cent) from seven EU countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden). Participants answered a structured questionnaire either face-to-face or a mix of interview/self-response. The overall prevalence of psychological abuse was 29.7 per cent in Sweden, 27.1 per cent in Germany; 24.6 per cent in Lithuania and 21.9 per cent in Portugal. The lowest prevalence was reported in Greece, Spain and Italy with 13.2 per cent, 11.5 per cent and 10.4 per cent, respectively. Similar tendencies were observed concerning minor/severe abuse. The Northern countries (Germany, Lithuania, Sweden) compared to Southern countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) reported a higher mean prevalence of minor/severe abuse (26.3 per cent/11.5 per cent and 12.9 per cent/5.9 per cent, respectively). Most perpetrators (71.2 per cent) were spouses/partners and other relatives (e.g. children). The analyses indicate that being from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain was associated with a lower risk of psychological abuse. Low social support, living in rented housing, alcohol use, frequent health care use, and high scores in anxiety and somatic complaints were associated with increased risk of psychological abuse.

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