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Journal article

Living arrangement choices of the elderly in Hong Kong

Author:
CHI Iris
Journal article citation:
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work, 5(1), January 1995, pp.33-46.
Publisher:
Times Academic

The traditional preference of the Chinese is for the elderly to live with their children. It is also observed that there is a growing preference among the elderly to lead an independent life. It is not clear how well received this new preference for independent living among the elderly in Hong Kong is. This paper is an attempt to find out the factors that differentiate co-residence and independent living of the elderly persons in Hong Kong.

Journal article

Moderating effect of communication difficulty on the relationship between depression and pain: a study on community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong

Authors:
CHAN Wallace Chi Ho, KWAN Chi Wai, CHI Iris
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 19(9), 2015, pp.829-834.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between depression and pain, and the moderating effect of communication difficulty on this relationship, among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method: Logistic regression was used to analyse secondary data regarding 12,402 Chinese older adults applying for long-term care service in Hong Kong in 2012. Results: Approximately 30% of participants were depressed and 37% experienced communication difficulty. Depression was associated with increased pain. Communication difficulty was found to moderate the relationship between depression and pain. Pain scores increased more when individuals who experienced communication difficulty reported being depressed, compared to those who did not experience communication difficulty. Conclusion: The moderating effect of communication difficulty may be explained by the interaction between depression and communication difficulty. Participants who were depressed and concurrently experienced communication difficulty may be more likely to catastrophise their pain and may tend to report or experience more pain. Health care professionals need to be aware of the different effects of communication difficulty on the pain experiences of older adults. Psychosocial intervention may be provided to minimize older adults’ communication barriers to pain management. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Linking elderly to holistic care services through integrated communication technology: the Personal Emergency Link service rendered by the Senior Citizen Home Safety Association in Hong Kong

Authors:
LEUNG Barbara S. L., TIMOTHY K. W. A., CARMEN K. M. G.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Technology in Human Services, 27(1), January 2009, pp.34-43.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

In 1996, after the deaths in a cold spell of 150 elderly people living alone, concerned citizens formed the Senior Citizen Home Safety Association which now supplies an emergency link service to nearly 61,000 people in Hong Kong, and this article describes the service and the use made of it.  Although most users are elderly, living alone and suffering from chronic diseases, others in need can join the service for a fee, and with certain conditions can be paid for by a charity scheme. The basic service is similar to those operating elsewhere for the last 20 years, comprising a personal alarm worn on the body to alert a 24-hour centre, together with a main unit allowing 2-way voice communication. Additionally, through a cooperative venture between the association and Hong Kong’s hospitals, in the event of an emergency patient records can be faxed to accident and emergency departments prior to the ambulance’s arrival. The centre receives information back from the hospital to inform the patient’s family where they can be found. There is also a hot line service for accessing useful information and getting emotional support, and other services, some of which are chargeable. The service is well- used and successful and continues to develop, at present extending into mobile phone networks.

Journal article

Modality of physical exercise and cognitive function in Hong Kong older Chinese community

Authors:
LAM Linda C. W., et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(1), January 2009, pp.48-53.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study reports on the association between modality of Physical Exercise and cognitive function in 782 older Chinese adults assessed in the second phase of a population survey for dementia in Hong Kong. Profiles of physical exercise was measured by a questionnaire (no exercise, stretching, aerobic and mind-body exercise). Cognitive Assessments included the CMMSE, ADAS-Cog, and Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT).  The aerobic and mind body exercise groups with longer exercise habits had higher scores in most cognitive tests. Beneficial effects were more significant in the young old group from 65- 75 years. It is concluded that possible age related specific effects of aerobic and mind body exercise on cognitive reserve are worthy of further exploration.

Journal article

Prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms in an epidemiologic sample of community-dwelling elders with milder forms of cognitive impairment in Hong Kong SAR

Authors:
CHAN Sandra S. M., et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(6), June 2008, pp.611-617.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Depression and cognitive impairment in later-life have great bearings on public health. The two conditions often co-occur and have mutual implications on short-term risk and long-term prognosis. A two-phase epidemiologic survey on the prevalence of dementia in elders aged 60 and over was conducted in Hong Kong in 2005-06. In the first phase, 6,100 randomly selected community dwelling elders were assessed with a Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (C-MMSE) and Abbreviated Memory Inventory for Chinese (AMIC), of whom 2,073 were screened positive and invited for second phase cognitive and psychiatric assessment. 35.5% of screen-positive subjects participated in Phase 2 assessment conducted by psychiatrists for diagnosis of dementia. Severity of dementia was determined using Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) and a structured bedside cognitive battery were also administered to each subject. The results showed that 1.7% of subjects with CDR 0.5 and 5.9% of subjects with CDR 1 had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Score on CSDD correlated positively with duration of cognitive symptoms, scores on CIRS and CMMSE in linear regression model. In a logistic regression model, male gender, duration of cognitive symptoms, CIRS and CMMSE was associated with increased risk for clinically significant depressive symptoms. It was concluded that in the sample, milder forms of cognitive impairment were associated with increased risk for depression in the presence of other risk factors such as male gender, higher physical illness burden and longer duration of cognitive symptoms.

Journal article

Factors influencing intention to continue volunteering: a study of older Chinese in Hong Kong

Authors:
CHEUNG Francis Yue-lok, TANG Catherine So-kum, YAN Elsie Chau-wai
Journal article citation:
Journal of Social Service Research, 32(4), 2006, pp.193-209.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

In this study the authors extended the volunteer process model (Omoto & Snyder, 1995) to identify factors influencing the persistence of volunteer activities in older Chinese. The study individually interviewed 318 older Chinese volunteers about their demographic information, history of volunteer activities, subjective health status, perceived social support, motivation for volunteering, integration into volunteer group, satisfaction from volunteer work, and intention to continue volunteering in the coming year. Bivariate correlation analyses generally supported the volunteer process model. In particular, intention to continue volunteering was related to antecedent factors of high educational attainment, mental well-being, social support, and fulfilment of altruistic and self-oriented motives as well as volunteer experiences of integration into the volunteer group and satisfaction with volunteer work. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that fulfilment of self-oriented motives was the most salient factor in predicting the persistence of volunteer activities when shared variances of various factors were also considered. The research and practical implications were discussed to facilitate the retention of older Chinese volunteers. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street,  Binghamton, NY 13904-1580).

Journal article

Quality of life measures for depressed and non-depressed Chinese older people

Authors:
CHAN Sally Wai-chi, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), November 2006, pp.1086-1092.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The aim was to compare the perception of quality of life (QoL) between depressed and non-depressed Chinese older people in Hong Kong and examined the factors that influence this perception. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 80 older people with a diagnosis of depression and 179 non-depressed controls. The depressed group had a lower rating in perceived QoL in all aspects than the non-depressed group. Level of depression and functional abilities were predictors of quality of life ratings for the both groups and activities of daily living was the predictor of quality of life for the depressed group only. The study identified the subjective perception of QoL amongst depressed older people is significantly lower than that amongst non-depressed older people. Depression affects the bio-psychosocial status of Chinese older people. This study provides insight for healthcare professionals in planning innovative services to meet their health needs.

Journal article

Nutrient intake and psychological health in an elderly Chinese population

Authors:
WOO J., et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), November 2006, pp.1036-1043.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Associations between nutrition and cognitive impairment, and nutrition and depression, have been observed. Elderly people are at risk of under nutrition, and also have higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression.  The objective was to examine the relationship between nutrient intake and psychological health in the elderly, adjusting for confounding factors. Three thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine men and women aged 65 years and over living in the community, with approximately equal numbers in three age groups: 65-69, 70-74, 75+ years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed by the cognitive part of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSID). Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Information was also collected for confounding factors: demographics, educational level, socioeconomic status, medical history, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between lifestyle and dietary variables, and CSID and GDS, controlling for confounders. Both CSID and GDS scores were associated with co-morbidity, demographic and socioeconomic factors. Few associations between lifestyle factors and CSID score were observed. Dietary factors inversely associated with GDS score include total fat intake, vitamins A, B2, B3, C, fibre, and vegetables. In terms of nutrient density, iron and isoflavone intake were additional factors.  Association exists between intake of various nutrients and psychological health independent of other confounding factors in the elderly population. A follow-up study of this cohort or interventional studies are needed to elucidate cause effect relationship.

Journal article

Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression in elderly Chinese primary care patients

Authors:
CHOU Kee-Lee, CHI Iris
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(10), October 2005, pp.945-952.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study examines the reciprocal relationship between pain and depression and to identify whether social support, functional disability or social functioning mediated the link between pain and depression among Hong Kong Chinese elderly primary care patients. Three hundred and eighteen patients were assessed by a trained assessor with MDS-HC at baseline and these subjects were randomly selected from attendants of three randomly selected elderly health centers in Hong Kong. These patients were re-assessed one year after baseline evaluation. Multiple regression analyses revealed that pain at baseline significantly predicted depression at 12-month follow-up assessment when age, gender, martial status, education, and depression at baseline were adjusted for, but depression at baseline was not associated with pain at 12-months after baseline measure while controlling for age, gender, martial status, education, and pain at baseline. However, depression did predict the onset of pain. Moreover, social support, physical disability or social functioning did not mediate the impact of pain on depression. These data suggest that pain is an important predictor of depression in elderly primary care patients. Therefore, aged care service practitioners must take this risk factor into consideration in their preventive intervention and treatment for psychological well-being.

Journal article

Gender differences in expectations predictive of volunteer experience among older Chinese professionals in Hong Kong

Authors:
MJELDE-MOSSEY Lee Ann, CHI Iris
Journal article citation:
Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 13(4), 2004, pp.47-64.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This study examines gender differences in expectations predictive of volunteer experience. A sample of 438 Chinese professionals in Hong Kong ages 45-79, including retired (36.3%) and employed (63.7%), were asked about their expectations for volunteer work. Gender was evenly distributed, with 49.8% male and 50.2% female. Forty-three percent (43%) had volunteer experience. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to sub-samples by gender, and gender differences emerged. For males, married and the expectation to utilize own skills were associated with volunteer experience. For females, self-rated health, retired, and the expectation to meet the needs of others were associated with volunteer experience. These results suggest that gender differences in expectations may influence volunteer activity. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street,  Binghamton, NY 13904-1580).

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