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Caps, opt-ins, opt outs: is England making progress in reforming care funding?

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
24p.
Place of publication:
London

This discussion paper provides a response to the government's recent progress report on care funding. The government’s report ‘Caring for our future: progress report on funding reform’, July 2012, set out the government's response to the recommendations of the Commission on Funding of Care and Support. In this document, the government accepts as the basis for reform the principle put forward by the Commission of financial protection through capped costs and an extended means test, but reveals that it will not make a decision on the capped cost model until the next Spending Review expected in late 2013. This response paper argues that the government's progress report effectively acknowledges that care funding reform could proceed on a cost-neutral basis for the Treasury, and not interfere with the government's deficit reduction strategy. However, the government fails to set out any of the options for paying for care funding reform and does not seek to use its report to inform a wider debate on this issue. This discussion paper suggests that progress toward care funding reform may occur in several ways: public acceptance of the difficult tax and spending decisions required to make the capped cost model cost-neutral for the Treasury; the implementation of a low-cost capped cost model; or the creation of a voluntary capped cost state-sponsored insurance scheme that becomes mandatory over time.

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Caring in the older population: a research brief for local authorities

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
International Longevity Centre UK
Publication year:
2009
Pagination:
13p.
Place of publication:
London

This document is for local authorities engaged in planning and delivering services to support older carers and summarises ILC -UK and the National Centre for Social Research's Living and caring?: an investigation of the experience of older carers. It gives key points, the background and the characteristics of care provision and discusses access to services, leisure, health, housing, and quality of life and care recipients.

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A cap that fits: the 'capped cost plus' model

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2013
Pagination:
76
Place of publication:
London

The government has committed to implementing reform of care funding in England in April 2016. However, detailed analysis of the ‘capped cost’ reforms suggests they are unlikely to meet any of their objectives. Consequently, people’s care costs will not be capped; and a market in pre-funded care insurance is unlikely to emerge. Rather than providing peace of mind to the population, annual increases in the ‘cap’ may insttead cause worry and concern. With less than three years until the reforms are due to be implemented, this report examines in detail the issues facing the ‘capped cost’ model’ and identifies the options for policymakers to fix these problems. The report concludes by assembling a range of options into an alternative package of measures that could be implemented in April 2016: the ‘capped cost plus’ model. The model comprises: a ‘cap’ on the assessed care costs that individuals are expected to pay for out of their own pockets; changes to means testing thresholds and the financial support individuals receive, proportional to their level of wealth; and a standardised expected contribution by individuals to ‘living costs’ in residential care. (Edited publisher abstract)

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Who uses telecare?

Authors:
ROSS Andy, LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
44p.
Place of publication:
London

A research project investigated the prevalence of telecare users and potential users in England in 2008, using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (a nationally representative study of older people in England). This report on the project looks at the potential of telecare and assistive technology in provision of care and support as the population ages. It describes the study data and methodology, and presents and discusses the findings together with statistical tables. It focuses in particular on 2 types of devices identified: mobile personal alarms and alerting devices fixed to the home. It covers demographic and socio-economic characteristics of telecare users, reporting that just over 2% of individuals aged 50 and above used a personal alarm and just over 4% had an alerting device fitted to their property, and that telecare is predominantly used by those in the 70 and over age group and especially by white females. It also covers the housing and homes of telecare users, health and disability of telecare users, and care and support for telecare users. The study included analysis to identify and describe potential telecare users and predict those most likely to qualify for and benefit from the use of telecare. A separate discussion paper (The Future of Who Uses Telecare) provides accompanying policy analysis and discussion.

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The future cost of housing benefit for older people

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
18p.
Place of publication:
London

There is growing awareness that among today's younger generation, a larger proportion may rent throughout their life compared to previous cohorts. However, in debate on 'generation rent', little consideration has been given to the fact that most people who rent in retirement rely on state support for their housing costs, in the form of means tested Housing Benefit. This report examines how trends in longevity and tenure will affect the future cost of Housing Benefit for older people in the very long term. Using projections of owner-occupation rates and the number of retirees in 2060, the report finds that the UK Exchequer will have to spend an extra £8.13 billion on Housing Benefit for pensioners each year compared to today. The report argues that debate on declining rates of home-ownership must recognise the long-term implications for public spending, and given these future costs, it is legitimate for the government to take aggressive measures to boost rates of home-ownership now.

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Gone for good?: prefunded insurance for long-term care

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2011
Pagination:
65p.
Place of publication:
London

In the debate on how to fund long-term care in England and Wales, some stakeholders have advocated a central role for financial services, and pre-funded consumer insurance in particular. This report examines this approach by considering: the potential role that pre-funded insurance could take in funding long-term care; and the extent to which the pre-funded long-term care insurance market can help policymakers achieve key strategic policy objectives for social care. It examines the demand and supply-side barriers to the use of pre-funded long-term care insurance, noting the last UK provider exited the market in 2010 citing a lack of demand. No country has achieved an effective market in pre-funded long-term care insurance, with France having the highest rate at 15%. The report argues that even if the UK were in the future to achieve a take-up of 15% this would still result in outcomes that failed to meet many policy objectives for long-term care funding, particularly associated with ‘catastrophic costs’, fiscal pressures and the incidence of means-testing. It concludes by outlining some of the multiple other roles that the financial services industry could take in funding social care, particularly around delivering and servicing a state-sponsored insurance scheme for long-term care, akin to the schemes found in countries such as Singapore and the Netherlands.

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Attendance allowance and local government: examining the evidence and the options

Author:
LLOYD James
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2016
Pagination:
36
Place of publication:
London

Explores the government’s proposal to transfer Attendance Allowance (AA) from the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to local authorities, as part of its plans to reform local government financing and give councils new spending responsibilities. It describes the operation of the AA system, its recipients and take-up and compares the AA and adult social care systems in England. It then examines evidence on the costs of living with a disability for older people and to what extent the AA and social care system meets these additional costs. The final chapter identifies and evaluates options for the government in transferring AA to local government in England and Wales. Options examined are: transfer AA spending to the local authority adult social care system; administration of AA system by local authorities; and a new universal, disability-related cash payment for older people paid by local authorities. The report concludes with key messages for policy makers and social care stakeholders. These include the importance of understanding the population group that receives AA - who are typically older, poorer, live alone, and with substantial levels of disability - and a recognition of potential additional costs for local authorities following any transfer due to the likelihood of increased demand for adult social care. (Edited publisher abstract)

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Low-income retirees, financial position and wellbeing

Authors:
PARRY Will, LLOYD James
Publisher:
Joseph Rowntree Foundation
Publication year:
2015
Pagination:
4
Place of publication:
York

Reports on research to examine the relationship between income, wealth and the experience of retirement of low-income older households. The study analysed data from Wave 6 (2012-13) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). It found that different levels of low income, around or below the government's guaranteed minimum income level for older people, do not lead to different experiences of retirement. However it found that non-housing wealth, such as 'buffer savings', are what makes the difference in people's experiences of retirement. Statistically significant relationships were identified between non-housing wealth and older people's experience of retirement in relation to: health and mental wellbeing, participation in leisure activities, participation in the community, and other aspects of life satisfaction. The findings show the importance of 'buffer savings' in supporting the wellbeing of poorer older people and the important role of savings policy in ensuring that as many people as possible enter retirement in possession of buffer savings, in addition to pension savings. (Edited publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

Open plan: building a strategic policy toward older owners

Authors:
LLOYD James, PARRY Will
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2015
Pagination:
44
Place of publication:
London

This policy discussion paper explores the findings of the Strategic Society Centre's research report ‘Older owners: research on the lives, aspirations and housing outcomes of older homeowners in the UK’ and examines what the research means for the development of policy around older homeowners. Issues discussed include, specialist housing and home adaptations; under-occupancy and housing supply; the use of housing wealth to fund retirement; and, housing wealth taxation and fairness. The report argues the government should increase the supply and take-up of specialist retirement housing, tackle the barriers and costs of moving home for older homeowners, tackle the 'affordability gap’ for older homeowners through partial/shared ownership and ‘Help to Buy’; and help older homeowners ‘downsize in place’. (Edited publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

Older owners: research on the lives, aspirations and housing outcomes of older homeowners in the UK

Authors:
LLOYD James, PARRY Will
Publisher:
Strategic Society Centre
Publication year:
2015
Pagination:
44
Place of publication:
London

Using data from the 2011 Census and a nationally representative panel survey, this qualitative research describes the housing wealth, outcomes and lives of older homeowners in the UK. It also looks at older homeowners in relation to key housing policy outcomes. The research covers: the increase of older home ownership; housing characteristics and living situation; income and economic activity; disability, health and caring; issues with the local environment and services; their attitudes to their neighbourhood, and moving plans. Findings suggest that there is a high percentage of under occupancy among older homeowners; between 20% and 40% of older homeowners in the UK may benefit from some form of adapted or specialised housing; and that the majority of owners had strong levels of neighbourhood attachment and planned to remain in their neighbourhood for a number of years. The report also briefly highlights the relevance of the findings to policy makers in relation to housing suitability; housing supply; housing wealth; and intergenerational fairness. An accompanying policy report 'Open Plan: Building a strategic policy toward older owners' considers the implications of the research findings for policy development. (Edited publisher abstract)

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