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Journal article

Between social networks and formal social services

Authors:
LITWIN Howard, AUSLANDER Gail K.
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 8(3), September 1988, pp.269-285.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

Reports a study of the social networks of recent applications to the social welfare bureaux of Jerusalem. Beyond review of the relevant study variables as reflected in the literature, and an overview of Israeli social services for the aged, addresses why the social networks of the elderly claimants turned to formal assistance.

Journal article

The inter-relationship between formal and informal care: a study in France and Israel

Authors:
LITWIN Howard, ATTIAS-DONFUT Claudine
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 29(1), January 2009, pp.71-91.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

This study examined whether formal care services delivered to frail older people's homes in France and Israel substitute for or complement informal support. The two countries have comparable family welfare systems but many historical, cultural and religious differences. Data for the respondents aged 75 or more years at the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were analysed. Regressions were examined of three patterns of care from outside the household: informal support only, formal support only and both formal and informal care, with the predictor variables including whether informal help was provided by a family member living in the household. The results revealed that about one-half of the respondents received no help at all (France 51%, Israel 55%), about one-tenth received care from a household member (France 8%, Israel 10%), and one-third were helped by informal carers from outside the household (France 34%, Israel 33%). More French respondents (35%) received formal care services at home than Israelis (27%). Most predictors of the care patterns were similar in the two countries. The analysis showed that complementarity is a common outcome of the co-existence of formal and informal care, and that mixed provision occurs more frequently in situations of greater need. It is also shown that spouse care-givers had less formal home-care supports than either co-resident children or other family care-givers. Even so, spouses, children and other family care-givers all had considerable support from formal home-delivered care.

Journal article

Does early retirement lead to longer life?

Author:
LITWIN Howard
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 27(5), September 2007, pp.739-754.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

It has been claimed, but not empirically supported, that early retirement leads to longer life. The present investigation addressed this question using data from a 1997 Israeli national household survey of adults aged 60 or more years linked to mortality records from the national death registry, for 2004. The study examined the association between early retirement and seven-year all-cause mortality among the population of older Jewish Israelis who were employed prior to or at baseline (N=2,374). Both the timing of retirement and the reasons for exit from the labour force were considered in the analysis. The initial hazard regression models, adjusted by gender and reason for retirement including poor health, showed that early retirees indeed had lower mortality risk ratios than respondents who had retired ‘on time’. When additional variables were controlled in the final analytic model, however, the association between early retirement and mortality was not supported. Older age, male gender, and having been diagnosed with one or more of five major illnesses were all associated with greater risk for mortality. Medium level education and being employed at baseline were associated with lesser mortality risk. Nevertheless, the timing of retirement, viz. early versus normative exit from the workforce, was not related to survival. In sum, the respondents who had prematurely exited the labour force did not benefit from disproportionately longer lives when compared with the respondents who retired ‘on time’.

Journal article

A multivariate examination of explanations for the occurrence of elder abuse

Authors:
LITWIN Howard, ZOABI Sameer
Journal article citation:
Social Work Research, 28(3), September 2004, pp.133-142.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Aims to determine the relative strength of 4 major explanations for the rise of elder abuse among a population in transition from traditional to modern culture. Compared a sample of 120 abused elderly Arab Israelis with a control group of 120 nonabused older adults from the same background. Abuse status outcome was regressed in a hierarchical logistic procedure on indicators of sociodemographic status, dependency, modernisation, and social integration. Results underscored the multiple explanations for elder abuse in the study population and the predominance of the combined factors of modernisation and social integration.

Journal article

The provision of informal support by elderly people residing in assisted living facilities

Author:
LITWIN Howard
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 38(2), April 1998, pp.239-246.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

Examines factors facilitating support giving to members of the social network by elderly Jewish persons residing in assisted living facilities in Israel. A support provision score was regressed on two sets of background control variables: personal characteristics and housing factors; social network variables; and an exchange measure - perceived available support. The hierarchical multivariate results revealed that it was principally the perceived support measure along with two personal characteristics (younger age and non-religious orientation) that explained the variance in the support provision score. The findings underscore the importance of reciprocity within the informal networks of this population.

Journal article

Social network type and subjective well-being in a national sample of older Americans

Authors:
LITWIN Howard, SHIOVITZ-EZRA Sharon
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 51(3), June 2011, pp.379-388.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

Using a sample of 1,462 people aged 65 years and older from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a survey examining health and interpersonal connections among older Americans, this study looked at social networks and well-being. It examined associations between network types and 3 selected well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Cluster analysis was used to derive 5 social network types: diverse, friend, congregants, family, and restricted. The article describes the analysis and the results. Social network type was found to be associated with each of the well-being indicators. The authors conclude that the findings confirmed that networks with a wider range of social ties were related to better well-being in terms of less loneliness, less anxiety, and greater happiness.

Journal article

Perceived income adequacy among older adults in 12 countries: findings from the survey of health, ageing, and retirement in Europe

Authors:
LITWIN Howard, SAPIR Eliyahu V.
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 49(3), June 2009, pp.397-406.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

This study aimed to validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends meet was regressed on sociodemographic variables, economic indicators, health status measures, and expectations regarding one's financial future. Country differences were also controlled. The findings confirm a multidimensional explanation of perceived income adequacy but also point to the primacy of objective economic indicators in predicting household financial distress. Respondents aged 80 years and older report less financial difficulty. Poor health status and pessimistic financial expectations also predict greater household financial distress but to a lesser degree. Self-rated economic status is a robust indicator of financial capacity in older age and can be used by practitioners to gain meaningful information. However, practitioners should keep in mind that the oldest-old may underestimate financial difficulties.

Journal article

Social network type and morale in old age

Author:
LITWIN Howard
Journal article citation:
Gerontologist, 41(4), August 2001, pp.516-524.
Publisher:
Gerontological Society of America

The aim of this research was to derive network types among an elderly population and to examine the relationship of network type to morale. Secondary analysis of data compiled by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics was employed, and network types were derived through K-means cluster analysis. Respondents' morale scores were regressed on network types, controlling for background and health variables. Five network types were derived. Respondents in diverse or friends networks reported the highest morale; those in exclusively family or restricted networks had the lowest. Multivariate regression analysis underscored that certain network types were second among the study variables in predicting respondents' morale, preceded only by disability level. Classification of network types allows consideration of the interpersonal environments of older people in relation to outcomes of interest. The relative effects on morale of elective versus obligated social ties, evident in the current analysis, is a case in point.

Journal article

The professional standing of work with elderly persons among social work trainees

Author:
LITWIN Howard
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Social Work, 24(1), February 1994, pp.53-69.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

A random sample of 93 students of social work in Israel were queried regarding their perception of the professional standing of work with older people. The general ranking given by trainees to this field of practice was moderate to low. Relatively positive evaluation of the status of gerontological practice, however, was found to be explained by: 1) a traditional view of the role of the elder in society; 2) the perception that peers attribute prestige to such work; 3) having had a field practicum in the area of ageing; and was inversely related to understanding of work with elderly persons as mainly indirect intervention. The implications of these findings for the promotion of social work practice with elderly people in an ageing society are discussed.

Book

Resolving grievances in the nursing home: a study of the ombudsman program

Authors:
MONK Abraham, KAYE Leonard, LITWIN Howard
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
Publication year:
1984
Pagination:
247p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
New York

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