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Journal article

Attendance Allowance and Disability Living Allowance claimants in the older population: is there a difference in their economic circumstances?

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, MORCIANO Marcello, PUDNEY Stephen
Journal article citation:
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, 20(2), June 2012, pp.191-206.
Publisher:
Policy Press

In the United Kingdom, there are two alternative social security benefits for older people with disabilities. The UK Disability Living Allowance (DLA) is a non-means-tested cash benefit claimable only before age 65, although receipt can continue beyond 65. The similar Attendance Allowance (AA) can be claimed only from age 65 and in some cases is worth less than DLA. DLA is being replaced by Personal Independence Payment (PIP) which, like DLA, will have advantages over AA. These advantages are sometimes justified on grounds that DLA recipients have longer histories of disability and consequently lower incomes. In this study, data were drawn from the UK Family Resource Survey, and included 32,384 people aged 65 and over, and 93,260 aged 30 to 64. The authors concluded that any reform of the disability benefit system for older people which is less favourable towards people who are first entitled to a disability benefit after reaching 65 is not based on evidence.

Book

Home-ownership in later life: financial benefit or burden?

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, et al
Publisher:
York Publishing Service/Joseph Rowntree Foundation
Publication year:
1999
Pagination:
70p.,tables,bibliog.
Place of publication:
York

Study analysing the financial costs and benefits of owner-occupation in later life. Includes sections on: home ownership among older people in Britain; the housing wealth of older home owners; is owning cheaper than renting; the potential for housing wealth to supplement income in later life; housing as a form of saving; and conclusions and policy issues.

Book

More ways than means: a guide to pensioners' incomes in Great Britain during the 1980's

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, WEIR Peter
Publisher:
Age Concern Institute of Gerontology
Publication year:
1994
Pagination:
43p.
Place of publication:
London
Book Full text available online for free

Disability costs and equivalence scales in the older population

Authors:
MORCIANO Marcello, HANCOCK Ruth, PUDNEY Stephen
Publisher:
Institute for Social and Economic Research
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
32p.
Place of publication:
Colchester

Disabled people face higher costs of living than do non-disabled people. These additional costs include the cost of adapting the home, overcoming the difficulties of getting about, and acquiring assistance with everyday tasks that non-disabled people can do unaided. This study estimated the implicit disability costs faced by older people, using data on over 8,000 individuals from the UK Family Resources Survey. It extended previous research by using a more flexible statistical modelling approach and by allowing for measurement error in observed disability and standard of living indicators. The study found that disability costs were strongly related to the severity of disability and to income, and at an average level of almost £100 per week among over-65s with significant disability they typically far exceed the value of any state disability benefits received.

Book Full text available online for free

Attendance allowance and disability living allowance claimants in the older population: is there a difference in their economic circumstances?

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, MORCIANO Marcello, PUDNEY Stephen
Publisher:
Institute for Social and Economic Research
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
19p.
Place of publication:
Colchester

This report, on potential differences in the economic circumstances of older claimants in England of Attendance Allowance (AA, non-means tested cash benefit claimable over-65) and Disability Living Allowance (DLA, non-means tested cash benefit claimable only under 65 but receipt of which can be continued after 65), is from the Institute for Social and Economic Research Working Papers series. It consists of a non-technical summary, introduction, and sections detailing ‘Family Resources Survey’ data between 2002 and 2005, ‘DLA and work histories in the working age population’, ‘the composition of the over-65 population’, and work histories, and incomes of AA and DLA recipients in the older population. “No evidence of greater income deprivation among DLA than AA recipients in terms of equivalised pre-benefit family income” was found. The governments’ perception of greater income deprivation among DLA compared with AA claimants, due to their earlier age of onset of disability and thus impaired earnings in earlier life, which had led to recent benefit reform proposals which would treat “recipients of AA less favourably than the recipients of DLA” is questioned, as is the validity of the proposed changes. Both AA and DLA claimant groups had substantially lower levels of average pre-benefit income than the older population in general.

Journal article

Ageing, income and living standards: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

Authors:
BERTHOUD Richard, BLEKESAUNE Morten, HANCOCK Ruth
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 29(7), October 2009, pp.1105-1122.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

In Britain, older people have lower average incomes and a higher risk of income poverty than the general population. Older pensioners are more likely to be in poverty than younger ones. Yet certain indicators of their living standards suggest that older people experience less hardship than expected, given their incomes. A possible explanation is that older people convert income into basic living standards at a higher rate than younger people, implying that as people age they need less income to achieve a given standard of living. Much existing evidence has been based on cross-sectional data and therefore may not be a good guide to the consequences of ageing. Longitudinal data was used on people aged at least 50 years from the British Household Panel Survey to investigate the effects of ageing on the relationship between standard of living, as measured by various deprivation indices, and income. It was found that for most indices, ageing increases deprivation when controlling for income and other factors. The exception is a subjective index of ‘financial strain’, which appears to fall as people age. Evidence of cohort effects were also found. At any given age and income, more-recently-born older people in general experience more deprivation than those born longer ago. To some extent these ageing and cohort effects balance out, which suggests that pensions do not need to change with age.

Journal article

Older carers in the UK: are there really gender differences? New analysis of the Individual Sample of Anonymised Records from the 2001 UK Census

Authors:
DEL BONO Emilia, SALA Emanuela, HANCOCK Ruth
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Care in the Community, 17(3), May 2009, pp.267-273.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The aim of this paper is to disentangle the role of gender and partnership status in the caring commitments of older people (age 65 and over). Logistic and interval regression models are applied to individual records from the 2001 UK Census to estimate: (1) the impact of gender on the likelihood of being a carer; (2) the impact of gender on the hours of care provided; and (3) the impact of gender on the likelihood of being a carer for different groups defined by marital status. In the general population the share of women who provide care is higher than the corresponding share of men, but men have a higher probability of being carers among people aged 65 or above. This phenomenon is largely explained by gender differences in marital status. As older men are more likely to be married, and married people are more likely to be carers, higher levels of caring among older men were observed. Once differences in marital status are accounted for, the relationship between gender and care provision among older people is overturned. It was found that without controlling for household size, limiting long-term illness or marital status, the odds of being an informal carer are lower for older women than men. Once these factors are accounted for, older women have higher odds of caring than older men. Restricting the sample to care providers, and controlling for the same factors, it is shown that older women supply more hours of care per week than older men. Gender differences in the provision of care among older people disappear only when considering married individuals and adjusting for the presence of other household residents affected by a limiting long-term illness.

Journal article

Assessing the distributional impact of reforms to disability benefits for older people in the UK: implications of alternative measures of income and disability costs

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, PUDNEY Stephen
Journal article citation:
Ageing and Society, 34(2), 2014, pp.232-257.
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press

The UK Attendance Allowance (AA) and Disability Living Allowance (DLA) are non-means-tested benefits paid to many disabled people aged 65 + . They may also increase entitlements to means-tested benefits through the Severe Disability Premium (SDP). The authors investigate proposed reforms involving withdrawal of AA/DLA. Despite their present non-means-tested nature, they show that withdrawal would affect mainly low-income people, whose losses could be mitigated if SDP were retained at its current or a higher level. The authors also show the importance of the method of describing distributional impacts and that use of inappropriate income definitions in official reports has overstated recipients' capacity to absorb the loss of these benefits. (Publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

Long-term care funding in England: an analysis of the costs and distributional effects of potential reforms

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, et al
Publisher:
University of Kent. Personal Social Services Research Unit
Publication year:
2013
Pagination:
13
Place of publication:
Canterbury

This paper examines projected costs and distributional effects of Government plans to reform the systems that determine how much the state contributes to people's long-term care costs compared with the current system. It also contrasts these costs and distributional effects with the central recommendation of the Commission on the Funding of Care and Support (Dilnot Commission) which was set up by the Government and reported in 2011. Two variants on the Government’s plans which would give additional help to recipients of residential care with capital below the proposed higher capital threshold are also considered. (Edited publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

The distributional impact of reforms to disability benefits for older people in the UK

Authors:
HANCOCK Ruth, PUDNEY Stephen
Publisher:
University of Essex. Institute for Social and Economic Research
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
26p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
Colchester

The UK Attendance Allowance (AA) and Disability Living Allowance (DLA) are non means-tested benefits paid to many disabled people aged 65 and over. They may also increase entitlements to means-tested benefits through the Severe Disability Premium (SDP). This report investigates proposed reforms involving the withdrawal of AA and DLA. It uses data from the Family Resources Survey to simulate the losses which current AA and DLA recipients would incur if AA and DLA were curtailed. It also considers the extent to which these losses could be mitigated if the SDP were to be retained or increased. It examines how average losses vary across the income distribution using different definitions of income and investigates the impact of potential reforms on the proportion of older people with incomes below various thresholds. The report finds that the abolition of AA and DLA would have a large impact on the poorer parts of the older population. Retaining or increasing the SDP within means-tested benefits could mitigate these losses to some extent. The report also shows the importance of the method of describing distributional impacts and that use of inappropriate income definitions in official reports has overstated recipients’ capacity to absorb the loss of these benefits.

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