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Journal article Full text available online for free

Research into practice

Author:
THOMPSON Neil
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 26.9.02, 2002, p.54.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

Briefly reports on research looking at the relationship between mental ill-health and violence.

Journal article

Quantifying violence in mental health research

Authors:
HARRIS Stephanie T., OAKLEY Clare, PICCHIONI Marco
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(6), 2013, p.695–701.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Research into mental illness and its relationship with violence has been constrained by inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of violent behaviour. The author conducted a systematic literature search of Scopus, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Ovid Medline with search terms relating to the measurement, rating and quantification of violent behaviour in mentally disordered populations. The authors identified nine tools designed to assess violence and critically evaluated them. Broadly, measurement tools tended to focus on multiple, but different, facets of violence, which included: severity of act, severity of outcome, frequency and intent, with each suggested as a valid outcome measure for violent acts. The use of multiple sources of information to inform assessment appears to provide detail; however, that detail is then often diluted as a result of dichotomisation of sample groups. This presents methodological challenges for the field. Future studies should give consideration to the trade-off between preserving the richness of data and the difficulties associated with recruiting large patient samples. Studies should move from simply defining violence towards quantification across different dimensions of violence and using multiple sources of information. Abbreviations: MOAS, Modified Overt Aggression Scale; LHA, Lifetime History of Aggression scale; QOVS, Quantification of Violence Scale; CVS, Crime and Violence Scale; Attacks, Attempted and Actual Assault Scale; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

The prediction of violence; detection of dangerousness

Authors:
NORKO Michael A., BARANOSKI Madelon V.
Journal article citation:
Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 8(1), February 2008, pp.73-91.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Contemporary evidence on the correlates of violence and the accuracy of predictions of violent outcomes is derived from a large body of research dating from approximately 1990. Substance abuse and several demographic variables have clearly been demonstrated to be significant risk factors for violence. The data on the link of various specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders to violence are inconclusive, though suggestive, because of conflicting research findings. Mental disorder does, however, represent a modest risk factor for violence. Actuarial predictions of future violence based on static nonpsychiatric characteristics achieve greater statistical accuracy than purely clinical methods, but the former are insensitive to effects of treatment and do not inform clinical intervention in an established way. Future research directions are encouraging in attempting to identify dynamic actuarial risk factors that will be both accurate and mutable. Substantive critiques of violence prediction and limitations of this body of research present a useful framework for evaluating both assumptions and conclusions about the prediction of violence in a psychiatric population.

Journal article

Mental illness and violence: a brief review of research and assessment strategies

Authors:
HARRIS Andrew, LURIGIO Arthur J.
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(5), September 2007, pp.542-551.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Examinations of the relationship between mental disorders and violent behaviour can be found throughout history and across cultures. Many examples of the cultural and social construction of dangerousness and mental illness also have appeared during the modern era. This article examines the evolution of thought and research regarding the relationship between mental illness and violence, from studies in the early twentieth century through the more recent MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. In addition, the article explores the state of knowledge and practices surrounding the assessment and management of violence risk among individuals with mental illness.

Journal article

The noradrenergic system and its involvement in aggressive behaviors

Authors:
HADDEN Sara Chiara, SCARPA Angela
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(1), January 2007, pp.1-15.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Although a multitude of variables are associated with the expression of aggression, it is imperative that accurate neurochemical vulnerabilities be understood. Norepinephrine is one neurochemical that has been linked to aggressive behaviour displayed by nonhuman and human animals. The purpose of the present review was to interpret research findings regarding this relationship. The authors evaluated previous research in order to determine whether a reliable connection between norepinephrine and aggressive behaviour exists. Moreover, the potential nature of the norepinephrine–aggressive behaviour relationship is presented. In general, research has found a positive relationship between levels of norepinephrine and aggressive behaviour among nonhuman animals and humans. However, multiple studies reporting contradictory results were also reviewed that suggest a nonlinear relationship. Norepinephrine's relationship with aggressive behaviour may best be explained in terms of the stress–response system and the type of aggressive behaviour elicited. Limitations of the previous studies and ideas for future research are discussed.

Journal article

Empirical evidence of a relationship between insight and risk of violence in the mentally ill: a review of the literature

Author:
BJORKLY Stal
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(4), July 2006, pp.414-421.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Lack of insight has established itself both as an important element of models of risk of violence and as a clinical item in structured approaches to measuring risk of violence. The main purpose of this paper is to delineate findings from a review of the literature concerning the empirical basis for the existence of a relationship between insight and violence risk. A second aim is to examine whether certain dimensions of insight may have a higher violence-triggering potential, and, if so, to learn more about valid and reliable approaches for measuring these dimensions. Results of this review show that there are very few empirical studies that demonstrate a possible association between insight and violence risk. Five out of a total of nine investigations found a positive relationship between poor insight and violent behavior. Nonetheless, the strength and specific nature of the relationship remain unclear due to considerable methodological and conceptual shortcomings in the reviewed studies. Seven recommendations for future research are presented to address these shortcomings.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Community study of knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in Nigeria

Authors:
GUREJE Oye, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(5), May 2005, pp.436-441.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

The improvement of community tolerance of people with mental illnessis important for their integration. Little is known about the knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa. A multistage, clustered sample of household respondents was studied in three states in the Yoruba-speaking parts of Nigeria (representing 22% of the national population). A total of 2040 individuals participated (responserate 74.2%). Poor knowledge of causation was common.Negative views of mental illness were widespread, with as many as 96.5% (s.d.=0.5) believing that people with mental illness are dangerous because of their violent behaviour. Most would not tolerate even basic social contacts with a mentally ill person: 82.7% (s.e.=1.3) would be afraid to have a conversation with a mentally ill person and only 16.9% (s.e.=0.9) would consider marrying one. Socio-demographic predictors of both poor knowledge and intolerant attitude were generally very few. There is widespread stigmatisation of mental illness in the Nigerian community. Negative attitudes to mental illness may be fuelled by notions of causation that suggest that affected people are in some way responsible for their illness, and by fear.

Journal article

What's so special?

Author:
KERR Graeme
Journal article citation:
Open Mind, 86, July 1997, pp.14-15.
Publisher:
MIND

Describes how people who 'require special security on the grounds of criminal, violent or dangerous propensities' are sent to special hospitals. These 'specials' have acquired bad associations: in the tabloid press they are 'holiday camps run by monstrous patients'; for many users/survivors they represent the apogee of an oppressive mental health system, and should be abolished; and even some mental health professionals regard them as at best a 'necessary evil'. Presents a variety of views on the special hospital system.

Journal article

Options for treating the untreatable

Author:
HEGINBOTHAM Chris
Journal article citation:
Social Work Today, 19.5.88, 1988, p.13.
Publisher:
British Association of Social Workers

Social services must offer more to those people with severe personality disorders - i.e. psychopaths.

Journal article

A danger to themselves and a danger to others - social workers and potentially dangerous clients

Author:
PRINS Herschel
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Social Work, 5(3), 1975, pp.297-309.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Gives an account of a small group of offender/patients defined as dangerous or potentially dangerous and puts forward reasons for an apparent reluctance to work with such clients.

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