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Journal article

Mental disorders in juveniles who sexually offended: a meta-analysis

Authors:
BOONMANN Cyril, et al
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 24, 2015, pp.241-249.
Publisher:
Elsevier

In order to establish the prevalence of mental disorders in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) a meta-analysis was carried out based on studies reporting on the prevalence rates of mental disorders in JSOs. Differences in mental disorders between JSOs and juveniles who offended non-sexually (non-JSOs) were also assessed. In total, 21 studies reporting on mental disorders in 2951 JSOs and 18,688 non-JSOs were included. In the total group of JSOs, 69% met the criteria for at least one mental disorder; comorbidity was present in 44%. The most common externalising and internalising disorders were respectively conduct disorder (CD; 51%) and anxiety disorder (18%). Compared to non-JSOs, JSOs were less often diagnosed with a Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD, i.e., CD and/or Oppositional Deviant Disorder [ODD]), an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). No significant differences were found for internalising disorders. In conclusion, although the prevalence of externalising disorders is higher in non-JSOs, mental disorders are highly prevalent in JSOs. Even though results of the current meta-analysis may overestimate prevalence rates (e.g., due to publication bias), screening of JSOs should focus on mental disorders. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article Full text available online for free

Permanent supportive housing: assessing the evidence

Authors:
ROG Debra J., et al
Journal article citation:
Psychiatric Services, 65(3), 2014, pp.287-294.
Publisher:
American Psychiatric Association

Objectives: Permanent supportive housing provides safe, stable housing for people with mental and substance use disorders who are homeless or disabled. This article describes permanent supportive housing and reviews research. Methods: Authors reviewed individual studies and literature reviews from 1995 through 2012. Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The authors chose from three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. Results: The level of evidence for permanent supportive housing was graded as moderate. Substantial literature, including seven randomized controlled trials, demonstrated that components of the model reduced homelessness, increased housing tenure, and decreased emergency room visits and hospitalization. Consumers consistently rated this model more positively than other housing models. Methodological flaws limited the ability to draw firm conclusions. Results were stronger for studies that compared permanent supportive housing with treatment as usual or no housing rather than with other models. Conclusions: The moderate level of evidence indicates that permanent supportive housing is promising, but research is needed to clarify the model and determine the most effective elements for various subpopulations. Policy makers should consider including permanent supportive housing as a covered service for individuals with mental and substance use disorders. An evaluation component is needed to continue building its evidence base. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Test-retest reliability of PsyCheck: a mental health screening tool for substance use treatment clients

Authors:
JENNER Linda, et al
Journal article citation:
Advances in Dual Diagnosis, 6(4), 2013, pp.168-175.
Publisher:
Emerald

The PsyCheck screening tool was designed for use by non-mental health specialists to detect common mental health problems. In order to examine the test-retest reliability of the PsyCheck screening tool, 50 drug users in Melbourne were given the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ; PsyCheck version) in their first three months of treatment at two time points, between five and nine days apart. The results suggest that the SRQ (PsyCheck version) has good test-retest reliability and confirms that the SRQ (PsyCheck) is a stable and reliable instrument for use within drug treatment settings. The implications of the use of screening tools not validated within alcohol and drug treatment setting are discussed. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Do maternal and paternal mental illness and substance abuse predict treatment outcomes for children exposed to violence?

Authors:
RISSER Heather J., et al
Journal article citation:
Child Care in Practice, 19(3), 2013, pp.217-220.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

This study examined whether having a parent with a mental illness or a parent who abuses substances predicts treatment outcomes for children receiving community-based services for exposure to violence. From 2001 to 2011, data were collected from 492 children from one-and-a-half to seven years old and their primary caregivers enrolled in Safe From the Start services. Results indicated significant improvements pre-intervention to post-intervention in child emotional and behavioural problems, as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). One-way bivariate analyses indicated that children of mothers or fathers with a mental illness and children of mothers who abused substances had higher CBCL scores at intake. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed a main effect such that maternal and paternal mental illness and maternal substance abuse were associated with poorer CBCL scores. The only parental risk factor to moderate the association between treatment and CBCL scores was paternal mental illness. Treatment was associated with greater improvement in CBCL scores for children of fathers with, relative to those without, mental illness, and the effect was due to higher CBCL scores at intake for children of fathers with mental illness rather than lower outcome scores. Results suggest that Safe From the Start services which provide early intervention can be effective in improving children's emotional and behavioural functioning. Additionally, the effectiveness of services appears to be robust to parental risk factors such as mental illness and substance abuse.

Journal article

Substance use and mental health disorders: why do some people suffer from both?

Authors:
REEDY Amanda R., KOBAYASHI Rie
Journal article citation:
Social Work in Mental Health, 10(6), 2012, pp.496-517.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders (MHD) are prevalent in the United States, affecting between 7 and 10 million adults. Social workers frequently practice in mental health and substance use disorder treatment settings where they are likely to encounter clients who have co-occurring disorders. Therefore, social workers should be familiar with the various etiological models of co-occurring disorders and the strengths and weaknesses of these models, in order to effectively assess and assist clients with co-occurring disorders. The purpose of this article is to describe and critique 4 different models of the etiology of co-occurring disorders: MHD leads to SUD - the self-medication model; SUD leads to MHD model; common factor model; and the combination model. The theory that social workers are most familiar with is the self-medication model, but this may not best explain the client's experience. While there is not definitive support for any of the models, each one seems to have its place in helping researchers and practitioners better understand co-occurring disorders. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed.

Journal article

Positive family social support: counteracting negative effects of mental illness and substance abuse to reduce jail ex-inmate recidivism rates

Authors:
SPJELDNES Solveig, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 22(2), February 2012, pp.130-147.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

In the United States, there are nearly nine million people cycling through 3,500 jails. Recidivism rates are predicted by high mental health and substance use problems, and racial disparity. This study, drawing on data from 301 offenders from Allegheny County Jail, identified factors predicting recidivism. Participants were adult men, enrolled in jail collaborative services at recruitment, and were 30 days from release. Findings revealed that positive family social support reduced the effect of factors known to predict higher recidivism rates, such as substance abuse, black race, and younger age. Negative perceptions of the helpfulness and support of community-based services were counteracted by positive family social support. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

Journal article

Supervision in public sector behavioral health: a review

Authors:
HOGE Michael A., et al
Journal article citation:
Clinical Supervisor (The), 30(2), July 2011, pp.183-203.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Historically, supervision was a common practice in agencies delivering publically funded services to persons with serious mental and substance use conditions. However, there are numerous published references suggesting that the provision of supervision has been declining significantly over the last 2 decades. This article provides an analysis of supervision as it relates to individuals providing care within publicly funded mental health and addiction services. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on supervision in the public sector, it summarises the current status, definition, functions, competencies, applicable standards and requirements, training approaches, and outcomes of supervision. It shows that the provision of supervision has eroded significantly due to economic constraints and the ‘flattening’ of service organisations. The literature suggests that supervision has a positive impact on supervisees’ stress levels, job satisfaction and competence, as well as on training, quality of care, and client outcomes. Recommended strategies for restoring and advancing supervision as an essential practice in systems of care are discussed.

Journal article

Research on the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community for persons with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders

Authors:
SACKS Stanley, SACKS JoAnn Y.
Journal article citation:
Therapeutic Communities: the International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, 31(2), Summer 2010, pp.176-211.
Publisher:
Association of Therapeutic Communities

This article highlights the development of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) as an approach to the treatment of co-occurring disorders. Four research studies are presented, each of which investigated the effectiveness of the MTC. Nine hundred and two subjects had mental disorders co-occurring with substance use disorders, and all four studies were undertaken by the same investigative team. Better outcomes were observed for the MTC group in every study, but the measures and domains in which differences were detected varied from study to study. Analysis showed significant improvements in outcomes for the MTC group in five of six outcome domains – substance use, mental health, crime, employment and housing. However, no significant differences were detected in HIV-risk. The paper concludes with brief summaries of preliminary findings from two current studies. In ending, the paper presents a discussion of staff training, aftercare services, and future directions for research related to the MTC.

Journal

Advances in Dual Diagnosis

Publisher:
Emerald

This practice-based Journal offers access to and information about dual diagnosis in the UK. It provides practical information to help improve services for people with dual diagnosis. The title is peer-reviewed. Articles from this journal are indexed and abstracted selectively on Social Care Online.

Book Full text available online for free

Mental health in Scotland: closing the gaps - making a difference: commitment 13

Author:
SCOTLAND. Scottish Government
Publisher:
Scotland. Scottish Government
Publication year:
2007
Pagination:
35p.
Place of publication:
Edinburgh

The aims of this publication are to improve the awareness of co-occurring mental health and substance misuse problems, to improve support and service provision for people who have both mental health and substance misuse problems (and their carers), and to reduce stigma and influence positively attitudes towards this care group.

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