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Journal article Full text available online for free

Relationship duration and mental health outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

Authors:
GIBB Sheree J., FERGUSSON David M., HORWOOD L. John
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(1), January 2011, pp.24-30.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

It has been suggested that the association between marriage and mental health reflects a selection effect in that psychologically healthy individuals are more likely to become married. A limitation of existing research is the focus on legal marriage rather than the duration of a cohabiting relationship. This study was designed to examine the associations between relationship duration and mental health problems in a birth cohort of New Zealanders. At age 25 and 30 987 participants were questioned about their partner relationships over the preceding 12 months and the extent to which they had suffered from a defined list of psychiatric disorders. Associations were adjusted for covariates, including prior mental health problems. Longer relationship duration was significantly associated with lower rates of depression, suicidal behaviour and substance abuse/dependence. With the exception of substance abuse, the associations did not vary with gender. Legal relationship status was not significantly related to mental health once allowance had been made for relationship duration. The authors conclude that increasing relationship duration, but not legal relationship status, has a protective effect on mental health for men and women.

Journal article

Change in reciprocity as a predictor of depressive symptoms: a prospective cohort study of Finnish women and men

Authors:
VAANANEN Ari, et al
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 67(11), December 2008, pp.1907-1916.
Publisher:
Elsevier

The purpose of the study was to examine gender differences in the association between changes in the balance of give and take in close relationships and depressive symptoms. Data from a 5-year prospective cohort study in Finland (HeSSup Study) (N = 18,445) were analyzed. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, recent negative life events, baseline depressive symptoms, hostility, and the supportiveness of social network, a shift of balance toward support receiving was a significant risk factor for future depressive symptoms among women. In contrast, men whose balance of give and take had moved toward support giving had a higher risk of future depressive symptoms than other men. When the analyses were replicated in a sub-cohort of initially non-depressed participants who lived in reciprocal relationships and had no recent life events, the results became even more pronounced among women, although not among men. It is concluded that, for women, a shift in their close relationships toward support receiving may lead to increased risk of depressive symptoms, whereas for men a shift toward giving may have a parallel though less evident impact.

Journal article

Relation of female gender and low socioeconomic status to internalizing symptoms among adolescents: a case of double jeopardy?

Authors:
MENDELSON Tamar, et al
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 66(6), March 2008, pp.1284-1296.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Characteristics associated with disadvantaged social position, such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and female gender, may play a significant role in the development of internalizing symptoms among adolescents. Indeed, theories of “double jeopardy” suggest that these disadvantaged status characteristics interact to produce particularly harmful mental health outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that lower SES places adolescent females at greater risk for internalizing symptoms than males. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods collected from a 15-year-old adolescent cohort (n = 640) at baseline and at two-year follow-up. Female gender predicted internalizing symptoms cross-sectionally and prospectively, whereas household income and caretaker education generally were not associated with internalizing symptoms. Findings overall did not indicate interactive effects between gender and SES indicators. However, subgroups of females at the lowest levels of caretaker education and household income displayed increased risk for specific outcomes, including higher internalizing symptom levels at follow-up and maintenance of severe symptom levels from baseline to follow-up.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Admission patterns by psychiatric trainees: are women patients as likely as men to be admitted for major mental illness?

Authors:
SAJAHAN P.M., McINTOSH A.M., CAVANAGH J.T.
Journal article citation:
Psychiatric Bulletin, 24(2), 2000, pp.59-61.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

The authors hypothesised that the increased admission rate for men with major mental illness may be the result of men being preferentially admitted by psychiatrists. A questionnaire survey was devised and sent to all psychiatric trainees on the South-East Scotland rotation. The questionnaire contained a series of psychiatric vignettes representing conditions varying in severity of risk. Seventy-eight per cent responded to the questionnaire. Trainees were more likely to admit patients representing a greater degree of risk irrespective of the gender of the patient. The authors conclude that the increasing admission rates for men with major mental illness is unlikely to be due to admission bias by trainees.

Journal article

Childhood and adolescent antecedents of psychiatric disability in men and women: a prospective study

Authors:
LINDELOW M., HODGINS S., KLINTEBERG B.
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Social Welfare, 8(3), July 1999, pp.221-228.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The prevalence of childhood and adolescent antecedents of psychiatric disability, that is, an extended inability to work due to a mental disorder, were investigated in a sample of Swedish men and women.

Journal article

Distinguishing between state-dependent and non-state-dependent depression-related psychosocial variables

Authors:
ROSENBAUM Michael, LEWINSOHN Peter M., GOTLIB Ian H.
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35(3), 1996, pp.341-358.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Discusses the results of a study to determine which among a set of depression related psychosocial variables are state dependent. The study examines whether state-trait distinctions among psychosocial variables are a function of gender and tests the hypothesis that state-dependence of psychosocial variables is mostly evident in people with a history of clinical depression. Results found that state dependent variables included engagement in pleasant and unpleasant events; frequency of social contacts; dissatisfaction with oneself and one's friends, irrational beliefs, and positive and negative expectancies. In contrast, the following variables were not state dependent: dissatisfaction with family and job, perception of control, and external attributions for positive and negative events. State-dependence was not moderated by age, gender or a history of depression. Offers some possible explanations for why some variables are state-dependent and others are not.

Journal article

Mental health and psychological adjustment in adults who were adopted during their childhood: a systematic review

Authors:
MELERO Sandra, SANCHEZ-SANDOVAL Yolanda
Journal article citation:
Children and Youth Services Review, 77, 2017, pp.188-196.
Publisher:
Elsevier

The aim of this paper is to systematically review the evidence about mental health and psychological adjustment in adult adoptees. A systematic search was conducted on Web of Science and PsycInfo. The review includes 27 studies that fulfilled the selection criteria (ages between 20 and 40, domestic adoptions and articles published since 1995). Evidence suggests that psychological adjustment in adult adoptees is more unfavourable (with higher levels of depression, anxiety, personality and behavioural disorders and neuroticism) than in non-adoptees. A small group of studies shows similar psychological adjustment of adoptees and non-adoptees. Moreover, there is evidence that the adopted population is quite heterogeneous, involving individual and contextual variables. There are clear diagnostic differences when gender is taken into account. Some family variables (e.g., attachment, parenting styles) emerge as mediating factors of the effects of the adoptive status on psychological adjustment. Other risk and protective factors have been insufficiently studied (e.g., age at the time of adoption), so additional research is needed. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Informal care-giving and mental ill-health: differential relationships by workload, gender, age and area-remoteness in a UK region

Authors:
DOEBLER Stefanie, et al
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Care in the Community, 25(3), 2017, pp.987-999.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This paper reports on a study carried out in a UK region which investigated the relationship between informal care-giving and mental ill-health. The analysis was conducted by linking three data sets, the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study, the Northern Ireland Enhanced Prescribing Database and the Proximity to Service Index from the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. The analysis used both a subjective measure of mental ill-health, i.e. a question asked in the 2011 Census, and an objective measure, whether the respondents had been prescribed antidepressants by a General Practitioner between 2010 and 2012. The study applied binary logistic multilevel modelling to these two responses to test whether, and for what sub-groups of the population, informal care-giving was related to mental ill-health. The results showed that informal care-giving per se was not related to mental ill-health, although there was a strong relationship between the intensity of the care-giving role and mental ill-health. Females under 50, who provided over 19 hours of care, were not employed or worked part-time and who provided care in both 2001 and 2011 were at a statistically significantly elevated risk of mental ill-health. Caregivers in remote areas with limited access to shops and services were also at a significantly increased risk as evidenced by prescription rates for antidepressants. With community care policies aimed at supporting people to remain at home, the paper highlights the need for further research in order to target resources appropriately. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The unique relation of childhood emotional maltreatment with mental health problems among detained male and female adolescents

Authors:
VAHL Pauline, et al
Journal article citation:
Child Abuse and Neglect, 62, 2016, pp.142-150.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Mounting evidence indicates that emotional maltreatment is at least as harmful as physical and sexual abuse. Notwithstanding their high occurrence among detained adolescents, the link between emotional maltreatment and mental health problems in these youths is not well researched. This study, therefore, was designed to examine the unique link between emotional maltreatment and mental health problems, with particular attention to gender differences. Well validated self-report measures of maltreatment experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and mental health problems (Youth Self Report) were completed by 341 detained adolescents (156 boys, 185 girls) aged 12 to 18 years. As expected, girls reported higher levels of maltreatment experiences and internalizing and externalizing mental health problems than boys. Blockwise multiple linear regression analyses indicated that in both genders emotional abuse was uniquely and positively associated with internalizing and externalizing mental health problems, over and above the influence of other types of maltreatment. Furthermore, sexual abuse was uniquely related with internalizing problems in girls only, whereas only in boys this type of abuse was uniquely related with externalizing problems. Detained adolescents who have been the victim of emotional abuse in combination with another type of maltreatment may be the worst subgroup in terms of mental health problems. Therefore, emotional maltreatment experiences in adolescents who offend should receive more research and clinical attention. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Associations between types of involvement in bullying, friendships and mental health status

Authors:
SKRZYPIEC Grace, et al
Journal article citation:
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3-4), 2012, pp.259-272.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Being involved in bullying (either as a victim, bully or bully–victim) is associated with poorer psychosocial outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of association between students’ type of involvement in bullying, their friendships and their mental health status. Specifically, the research aimed to establish: whether the mental health status of victims, bullies and bully-victims would fall disproportionately into the abnormal range of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); to examine the associations between gender and mental health status according to involvement in bullying; and to investigate the association between the type of students' involvement in bullying, friendship status and mental health status. A sample of 1313 adolescents, aged 12-15 years, drawn from 3 South Australian secondary schools in Adelaide, completed the SDQ and the Peer Relations Questionnaire (PRQ). The findings showed that adolescents involved in bullying, particularly bully–victims, were more likely to be screened as ‘abnormal’ on the SDQ. The findings also suggest that having friends may act as a protective factor against these mental health difficulties, particularly for victims. The different types of mental health difficulties experienced by males and females involved in bullying warrant targeted interventions relevant to the characteristics of subgroups of students.

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