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Journal article

Factors associated with experienced discrimination among people using mental health services in England

Authors:
HAMILTON S., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 25(4), 2016, pp.350-358.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Background: Research has found considerable variation in how far individuals with a diagnosis of mental illness experience discrimination. Aims: This study tested four hypotheses: (i) a diagnosis of schizophrenia will be associated with more discrimination than depression, anxiety or bipolar disorder; (ii) people with a history of involuntary treatment will report more discrimination than people without; (iii) higher levels of avoidance behaviour due to anticipated discrimination will be associated with higher levels of discrimination and (iv) longer time in contact with services will be associated with higher levels of discrimination. Method: Three thousand five hundred and seventy-nine people using mental health services in England took part in structured telephone interviews about discrimination experiences. Results: A multiple regression model found that study year, age, employment status, length of time in mental health services, disagreeing with the diagnosis, anticipating discrimination in personal relationships and feeling the need to conceal a diagnosis from others were significantly associated with higher levels of experienced discrimination. Conclusion: Findings suggest that discrimination is not related to specific diagnoses but rather is associated with mental health problems generally. An association between unemployment and discrimination may indicate that employment protects against experiences of discrimination, supporting efforts to improve access to employment among people with a diagnosis of mental illness. (Publisher abstract)

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Mental Health (Discrimination) Act 2013: Chapter 8

Author:
GREAT BRITAIN. Acts, Bills
Publisher:
Stationery Office
Publication year:
2013
Pagination:
5p.
Place of publication:
London

The Mental Health (Discrimination) Act 2013 is an act to make further provision about discrimination against people on the grounds of their mental health. The provisions cover Members of Parliament, jurors and company directors. They repeal legislation disqualifying a Member of Parliament or of the devolved bodies on grounds of mental illness, remove the general ban on people receiving treatment for their mental health undertaking jury service, and amend regulations which allow a director of a public or private company to be removed from their position by reason of their mental health. Explanatory notes produced to assist in the understanding of the Act are available separately.

Book Full text available online for free

Mental health and employment

Author:
NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH DEVELOPMENT UNIT
Publisher:
National Mental Health Development Unit
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
2p.
Place of publication:
London

This factsheet provides brief facts and statistics on mental ill health in the workplace. Information is provided on: mental ill health in the working population; mental health and employment; mental health and unemployment; stigma and discrimination in the workplace.

Journal article

Hard labour

Author:
SHRUBB Richard
Journal article citation:
Mental Health Today, February 2009, pp.14-15.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

Obtaining and keeping a job can be challenging for people diagnosed with a mental illness, despite legislation outlawing discrimination against them. This article highlights strategies from a Trade Union Council guide to help ensure that people with psychiatric issues get fair treatment in the workplace. It also looks at the work of the initiative 'Open Up Toolkit', a project to help service users tackle discrimination against mental illness.

Journal article

Enterprise, employment and empowerment: the social firm sector's mission

Author:
REYNOLDS Sue
Journal article citation:
A Life in the Day, 12(4), November 2008, pp.27-31.
Publisher:
Emerald

The author, Chief Executive of Social Firms UK, outlines the latest developments in the social firm sector's mission to provide real jobs for people with severe disadvantages, such as those with mental health problems. The article highlights the work of a number of social firms.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Keep quiet about it

Author:
CARTER Michael
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 8.12.05, 2005, pp.38-39.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

This article looks at the personal experience of the stigma of mental health in a sample of people with mental health problems. Seventy-five people took part in the study which was carried out by North West Wales NHS Trust. Results show that stigma and the fear of negative reactions form others because of mental health problems are prevalent. A lower proportion of discrimination was reported compared to the experience of stigma. Future research will need to examine strategies found to be helpful in coping with stigma.

Journal article

Why talk of illness entrenches discrimination

Author:
SAYCE Liz
Journal article citation:
Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 18(2), 2014, pp.68-76.
Publisher:
Emerald

Biological understandings of mental illness are promoted by both anti-stigma campaigners and increasingly by activists protesting against social security cuts. This paper analyses the pitfalls of the 'illness' conceptualisation for reducing discrimination, comments on divisions between those arguing for a right to work and those who seek a right not to work, and proposes bridge building and more effective messages, drawing on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It reviews relevant evidence on the effectiveness or lack of it of the 'mental illness is an illness like any other' message in anti-stigma work, and discussion of grey literature from campaigners and bloggers. There is a growing body of evidence that the 'illness like any other' message entrenches rather than reduces stigma and discrimination: this message should not be used in anti-discrimination work. At the same time some social security bloggers and campaigners have argued they are 'sick' in order to resist efforts to compel them to seek work or face sanctions; whilst older disability rights campaigners have argued for the right to work. The paper argues for new bridge building and use of evidence based messages in campaigning. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article Full text available online for free

Experiences of discrimination among people using mental health services in England 2008-2011

Authors:
CORKER E., et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(s55), April 2013, pp.s58-s63.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

To determine whether the Time to Change (TTC) programme target of 5% reduction in discrimination against people using mental health services had been achieved, separate samples of people using mental health services were interviewed annually from 2008 to 2011 using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale. Ninety-one per cent of participants reported one or more experiences of discrimination in 2008 compared with 88% in 2011. The median negative discrimination score was 40% in 2008 and 28% in 2011. The proportion of participants experiencing no discrimination increased significantly over the course of TTC but by less than the initial target. The overall median discrimination score fell by 11.5%. Data from 2010 and 2011 suggest that these gains may be hard to maintain during economic austerity. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Read all about it

Author:
O'HARA Mary
Journal article citation:
Mental Health Today, July 2011, pp.12-14.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

Many studies have shown that the stigma experienced by people with mental health problems can be made worse by negative reporting in the media. A recent study has compared the reporting of mental health topics in headlines and articles published in major newspapers in the United Kingdom and the United States between the years 1985 and 2009. Findings indicate that there is still much negative coverage of mental health, particularly in the tabloid press.

Journal article

Employer and employment agency attitudes towards employing individuals with mental health needs

Authors:
BIGGS David, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 19(6), December 2010, pp.509-516.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

The positive benefits of paid employment for individuals with mental health needs are well known yet many still remain unemployed. The attitudes of employers and employment agencies that may provide short-term contracts to individuals with mental health needs are important to understand if these individuals are to be given access to paid employment. This study used a mixed methods approach comprising interviews and a follow-up survey. Interviews were conducted with 10 directors responsible for the local recruitment agency in Gloucestershire and 10 employing managers in large businesses. The results of these interviews then informed a follow-up survey of 200 businesses in Gloucestershire. The findings demonstrated that employment agencies would consider putting forward individuals with previous mental health needs to employers. However, employers had a high level of concern around employing these individuals. Employers reported issues of trust, needing supervision, inability to use initiative and inability to deal with the public for individuals with either existing or previous mental health needs. The article concludes that there is a need for employers to have more accurate information regarding hiring individuals with mental health needs.

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