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Journal article

Mental disorders in juveniles who sexually offended: a meta-analysis

Authors:
BOONMANN Cyril, et al
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 24, 2015, pp.241-249.
Publisher:
Elsevier

In order to establish the prevalence of mental disorders in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) a meta-analysis was carried out based on studies reporting on the prevalence rates of mental disorders in JSOs. Differences in mental disorders between JSOs and juveniles who offended non-sexually (non-JSOs) were also assessed. In total, 21 studies reporting on mental disorders in 2951 JSOs and 18,688 non-JSOs were included. In the total group of JSOs, 69% met the criteria for at least one mental disorder; comorbidity was present in 44%. The most common externalising and internalising disorders were respectively conduct disorder (CD; 51%) and anxiety disorder (18%). Compared to non-JSOs, JSOs were less often diagnosed with a Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD, i.e., CD and/or Oppositional Deviant Disorder [ODD]), an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). No significant differences were found for internalising disorders. In conclusion, although the prevalence of externalising disorders is higher in non-JSOs, mental disorders are highly prevalent in JSOs. Even though results of the current meta-analysis may overestimate prevalence rates (e.g., due to publication bias), screening of JSOs should focus on mental disorders. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Do perceptions of dysfunction and normality mediate clinicians' judgements of adolescent antisocial behavior?

Authors:
KIRK Stuart A., HSIEH Derek H.
Journal article citation:
Social Service Review, 83(2), June 2009, pp.245-266.
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) requires clinicians making a judgment of mental disorder to first make complex mediating inferences about internal dysfunction and rule out the possibility that behaviours are normal reactions to a problematic environment. Responding to a case vignette in which the social context of antisocial behaviour was systematically varied, a sample of 1,500 social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists made judgments about the presence of mental disorder, internal dysfunction, and normality in the antisocial behaviour of a youth. Perceptions about the presence of internal dysfunction and normality are found to be related to judgments of mental disorder, but they do not fully mediate the relationship between the influence of social context and judgments of mental disorder.

Book

Free to fly: a story of manic depression

Author:
KWOK Caroline Fei-Yeng
Publisher:
Inclusion Press
Publication year:
2006
Pagination:
221p.
Place of publication:
Toronto

The author  has had first hand experience with mental illness and has put that experience into words so that everyone can benefit. She describes her difficult times, her treatments and her mis-treatments. She also describes her recovery. The inner world of someone with bipolar disorder, stigmas associated with mental disorders, strengths and weaknesses of the mental health care system, and importance of cultural factors in mental health are told in a vivid manner.

Journal

Behaviour Research and Therapy

Publisher:
Elsevier Science

Behaviour Research and Therapy publishes on and promotes cognitive behaviour therapy for psychological disorders.

Journal article

Social skills and social and nonsocial cognitive functioning in schizophrenia

Author:
IKEBUCHI Emi
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 16(5), October 2007, pp.581-594.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Persons with schizophrenia show deficits across a broad range of social domains, and their social skill deficits are thought, to some extent, to be caused by cognitive dysfunction. The author conducted a review and concluded that both nonsocial and social cognition were strongly related to social skills in schizophrenia. However the relationship between social and nonsocial cognition and the pathways to social skills remain unclear. In this study, the author attempted to investigate how nonsocial and social cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms determine social skills in persons with schizophrenia. Sixty-four subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia were evaluated with a semi-structured role-play test, BPRS, and a psychological test battery for attention, verbal fluency, and executive functioning. The ability to recognize the goal of the situation was partly determined by attention and social cognition independently. The processing of problem-solving and planning alternative behaviours was partly determined by the ability to recognize the goal, disorganization symptoms, and verbal fluency. The ability to send one's intention and emotion to others effectively was partly determined by processing skill, negative and disorganization symptoms, executive functioning, and verbal fluency. The structural equations model results revealed that the proposed model fitted the sample data well. The model proposed demonstrated that the cognitive chain constructs mediated the relationship between social input and behavioural output, and both social and non-social cognitive functioning directly influenced some step of the cognitive chain constructs.

Journal article

Epilepsy in learning disabilities: relevance and association with mental illness and behavioural disturbances

Author:
TURKISTANI Ibrahim Y. A.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(1), March 2004, pp.89-99.
Publisher:
Sage

This study investigated the prevalence of epilepsy in learning disabilities and its association with mental illness and behavioural disturbance. Case notes were examined of adults and elderly people registered with specialist learning disability services in the Hull and Holderness area, England. Clients were divided into two groups: people with learning disabilities with an active history of epilepsy and those with no history of epilepsy. Findings from 240 clients were: 45 percent had active epilepsy; of these, 33.3 percent had onset of seizures before the age of 1 year, 76.9 percent had more then one seizure a month, and 50 percent were on one anti-epileptic drug. No significant association was found between epilepsy and behavioural disturbances or mental illness. These results may add some weight to the argument that epilepsy does not necessarily increase the incidence of mental illness and/or behavioural disturbance.

Journal article

Detecting emotional and behavioural problems in paediatric clinics

Authors:
GLAZEBROOK C., et al
Journal article citation:
Child: Care, Health and Development, 29(2), March 2003, pp.141-149.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Children with chronic illness have increased rates of mental health problems and psychological difficulties often present as physical conditions. This prevalence survey aimed to determine whether children attending general paediatric out-patient clinics are at increased risk of suffering from emotional and behavioural disturbance and whether there is an unmet need for psychiatric liaison to paediatric clinics by studying 307 children aged 5–15 attending a representative sample of paediatric out-patient clinics in one UK hospital. A national community sample of 10,438 children aged 5–15 was used as a comparison group. Parental ratings of child behaviour were obtained using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Doctors rated the extent of any emotional difficulties using a modification of the SDQ ‘impact supplement’. Children attending paediatric out-patient clinics were more than twice as likely to score in the abnormal range of the SDQ. Of the 60 (20%) children with a probable psychiatric disorder only 15 had received specialist help from child mental health services. There were no gender differences in the profile of difficulties with emotional symptoms being particularly evident in both boys and girls. The risk of psychiatric disorder was highest among those with brain disorders attending neurological clinics. Clinicians only identified emotional or behaviour problems in a quarter of those children with parent-rated disorder. Concludes there is increased prevalence of emotional and behavioural disturbance in children attending paediatric out-patient clinics. The SDQ could be added to routine paediatric assessments to aid appropriate referral of children with possible psychiatric disorder to child mental health services.

Book

Antisocial Personality Disorder: an epidemiological perspective

Author:
MORAN Paul
Publisher:
Gaskell
Publication year:
1999
Pagination:
141p.,tables,bibliog.
Place of publication:
London

Provides a comprehensive review of antisocial personality disorder from an epidemiological point of view. Opens with a discussion of the central problems associated with assessing and classifying abnormal personality and then focuses more specifically on antisocial personality disorder with chapters on: distribution; natural history; early risk factors; associated conditions; burdens; and needs assessment.

Journal article

Subtypes of stalking (obsessional following) in adolescents

Author:
McCANN Joseph T.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Adolescence, 21(6), December 1998, pp.667-675.
Publisher:
Academic Press

Stalking, which has been given the clinical term "obsessional following", is repetitive threatening or harassing behaviour that creates a fear of harm in the victim. Three cases of adolescent obsessional following are discussed and analysed. These cases document that stalking/obsessional following occurs in adolescents and that important similarities and differences appear to exist between adult and adolescent offenders. Hypotheses are generated to encourage further study of this significant problem.

Journal article

Mind games

Author:
STEELE Linda
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 3.12.98, 1998, pp.22-23.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

In the wake of the Michael Stone case Jack Straw called for "dangerous psychopaths" to be locked up. The author writes that knowing what to do with people with anti-social personality disorders is not such a simple question.

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