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Journal article Full text available online for free

The Maudsley long-term follow-up of child and adolescent depression: 1; psychiatric outcomes in adulthood

Authors:
FOMBONNE Eric, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, September 2001, pp.210-217.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Strong links exist between juvenile and adult depression but comorbid conduct disorder in childhood may mitigate this continuity. This article aims to test the impact of comorbid conduct disorder on psychiatric adult outcomes. A group of 149 subjects assessed at the Maudsley Hospital in the period 1970-1983 and meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder with or without conduct disorder were interviewed 20 years later. Data were collected on the lifetime history of psychiatric disorders. Found that adult depressive recurrence was high for major depression (62.4%) and any depression (75.2%) and survival analyses showed no difference between the two groups. The group with conduct disorders had higher rates of drug misuse and dependence, alcoholism and antisocial personality disorders. Concludes that adolescent depression carries an elevated risk of adult depression irrespective of comorbidity. Comorbid conduct disorder in childhood is associated with raised rates of other psychiatric outcomes.

Journal article Full text available online for free

The Maudsley long-term follow-up of child and adolescent depression: 2. suicidality, criminality and social dysfunction in adulthood

Authors:
FOMBONNE Eric, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, September 2001, pp.218-223.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Strong links exist between juvenile and adult depression, but comorbid conduct disorder may be associated with worse adult social difficulties. This article tests the impact of comorbid conduct disorder on social adjustment and dysfunction, suicidality and criminality of adults who had depression as youths. Subjects assessed at the Maudsley Hospital in 1970-1983 and meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder with (CD-MDD) or without (MDD) conduct disorder were interviewed 20 years later. Data were collected on lifetime psychiatric disorders and adult social/personality functioning. Death certificates and criminal records were obtained. Results found that the suicide risk was 2.45 percent and 44.3 percent of the sample had attempted suicide once in their lives. Compared with the MDD group, the CD-MDD group had higher rates of suicidal behaviours and criminal offences, and exhibited more pervasive social dysfunction. Adolescent depression is associated with raised risks of adult suicidality and with persistent interpersonal difficulties. Youths with CD-MDD show more severe and pervasive social dysfunction.

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