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Journal article

Formal support, mental disorders and personal characteristics: a 25-year follow-up study of a total cohort of older people

Authors:
SAMUELSSON G., et al
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Care in the Community, 11(2), March 2003, pp.95-102.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study was designed to describe the pattern of long-term formal support received by people with mental disorders and to investigate the relationship between the medical, psychological and social characteristics of the participants and types of formal support, based on a cohort of 192 people born in 1902 and 1903 in a community in Southern Sweden. They were assessed using interviews, psychological tests and medical examinations. Information was collected about the use of primary healthcare and social services. The first assessment took place when the cohort was aged 67 and on 8 further occasions until they were 92. Participation ranged from 72% to 100%. During the observation period of 25 years, 53% of people with dementia eventually received both home help and institutional care compared to 34% with other psychiatric diagnoses and 12% with good mental health. The last group all had physical health problems and/or problems with activities of daily living. However, 35% of the dementia group, 46% with other psychiatric diagnoses and 52% with good mental health received no formal support. Males and self-employed people were significantly less likely to use formal support. The institutionalised group reported loneliness significantly more often than the other 2. In a logistic regression analysis, loneliness, low social class, high blood pressure and low problem-solving ability were predictors of formal support use. People with mental disorder, including dementia, were significantly more likely to use formal support compared with people with good mental health. Social factors were the main factors predicting formal support.

Journal article Full text available online for free

How the law and welfare combine for children and families where there is parental mental illness: inter-country comparisons of professional practice

Author:
HETHERINGTON Rachael
Journal article citation:
Social Work in Europe, 8(3), 2001, pp.29-36.
Publisher:
Russell House

Reports on inter-country comparative research into social work practice. The project was set up to research the responses of mental health and child care welfare systems for children who have a mentally ill parent.

Journal article

Childhood and adolescent antecedents of psychiatric disability in men and women: a prospective study

Authors:
LINDELOW M., HODGINS S., KLINTEBERG B.
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Social Welfare, 8(3), July 1999, pp.221-228.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The prevalence of childhood and adolescent antecedents of psychiatric disability, that is, an extended inability to work due to a mental disorder, were investigated in a sample of Swedish men and women.

Journal article

Premorbid adjustment and personality in people with schizophrenia

Authors:
MALMBERG A., et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, April 1998, pp.308-313.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Discusses how schizoid personality and poor social adjustment have been thought of as common antecedents of schizophrenia but the existing literature is inconclusive. Describes a cohort study of the premorbid personality and adjustment of Swedish men who were assessed on entry into the army. Individuals who developed schizophrenia or another psychosis after 15-year follow up were identified. Concludes that some aspects of premorbid personality and adjustment may act as risk factors for schizophrenia. The results appear to be most consistent with a multi-factorial aetiology for schizophrenia and offer tentative support for psychological disturbance mediating genetic and environmental effects on the causal pathway to the illness.

Journal article

Adult adjustment problems of separated children: a longitudinal study from birth to the age of 23 years

Authors:
BERMAN L.R., WANGBY M.
Journal article citation:
Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, 2(1), January 1993, pp.10-16.
Publisher:
Munksgaard/ Blackwell

The study investigated the risk of adult criminality, alcohol abuse and mental health problems (between 18 and 23 years of age) that were associated with a) the number of separations to which a child had been subjected, b) age at separation and c) the sex of the child. Data were used from a Swedish longitudinal study of a large representative sample.

Journal article

Att vara medlem i kontaktgrupp. (Being a member of a contact group.)

Author:
PERSSON Lars G.
Journal article citation:
Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 13(1), 1993, pp.39-50.
Publisher:
Universitetsforlaget AS

Based on a Swedish interview study with some former psychiatric patients who are now members of a contact group. These are municipally organised and staffed and held in a flat to which the members can come during the daytime to meet and pass the time in various ways. The findings show that the members have the opportunity to tackle loneliness and idleness in the contact group. It fills the function of a primary group for most lonesome people, while giving the other members something to do. After years in the enforced collective of a mental hospital, the interviewees prefer to live on their own. They are aware, however, that they would have difficulties in coping with their new life without access to the contact group. By all appearances the contact group represents a form of support which society must be prepared to make constantly available.

Journal article

Being alone or becoming lonely? The complexity of portraying ‘unaccompanied children’ as being alone in Sweden

Authors:
HERTZ Marcus, LALANDER Philip
Journal article citation:
Journal of Youth Studies, 20(8), 2017, pp.1062-1076.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Research has largely focused on ‘unaccompanied minors’ as a vulnerable group at risk of developing psychological problems that affect their health. Separation from primary caregivers is considered one of the foremost reasons for these young people’s proposed loneliness. Thus, the official and ascribed identity is that they are lonely and that loneliness is their major problem. But research has seldom given the young people themselves an opportunity to express their views in an attempt to trace the often situational, dynamic and complex nature of social and emotional life. The present article analyses how ‘unaccompanied minors’ talk about everyday life and themes related to loneliness. The authors followed 23 ‘unaccompanied minors’ during a period of a year through ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews. Results: Loneliness may occur when these young people experience lack of control in managing life and when they feel no one grieves for them; loneliness may be dealt with by creating new social contacts and friends; loneliness may be reinforced or reduced in encounters with representatives from ‘the system’; the young people may experience frustration about being repeatedly labelled ‘unaccompanied’ and they may create a resistance to and critical reflexivity towards this labelling. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

What makes supportive relationships supportive? The social climate in supported housing for people with psychiatric disabilities

Author:
ANDERSSON Gunnel
Journal article citation:
Social Work in Mental Health, 14(5), 2016, pp.509-529.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

The link between social support, well-being, and mental health has been established in numerous studies in a variety of disciplines since the 1970s. A specific type of support is professional social support for people with psychiatric disabilities living in the community. This study emphasizes the relationship between the professional and the person with psychiatric disability in supported housing. The results show that a supportive relationship involves a social climate with the following components: interest in the individuality, care/concern, and respect for the integrity of the individual. The results also indicate that the social climate has a crucial influence on perceived support, as exemplified by supportive and unsupportive types of relationship. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article Full text available online for free

Unemployment and psychological distress among young adults in the Nordic countries: a review of the literature

Authors:
RENEFLOT Anne, EVENSON Miriam
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Social Welfare, 23(1), 2014, pp.3-15.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This article reviews Nordic research, published from 1995 and onwards, on the relationship between unemployment and mental health among young adults. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and time-series studies are included. Cross-sectional studies show that the unemployed experience more mental health problems than the non-unemployed. Leaving unemployment is associated with increased well-being. Economic problems, feelings of shame and poor social support increase the likelihood of psychological distress. The longitudinal studies show that unemployment increases the risk of psychological distress and attempted suicide, after initial mental health status and confounding factors are accounted for. The relationship remains significant when time-invariant characteristics of the individuals are controlled for. The time-series studies found no relationship between unemployment and suicide, but levels of psychological distress were found to vary with changes in the labour market. This relationship remained significant after excluding the non-employed, indicating that unemployment trends have effects beyond those directly associated with unemployment. (Publisher abstract)

Book

The extremes of the bell curve: excellent and poor school performance and risk for severe mental disorders

Author:
MACCABE James
Publisher:
Routledge
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
186p.
Place of publication:
London

It has long been claimed that there is a strong association between high intelligence, or exceptional creativity, and mental illness. This book uses evidence from a study of Swedish population data to investigate this claim. The first 2 chapters provide an introduction to the epidemiology of psychosis, with particular emphasis on cognitive performance and creativity. The remaining chapters provide a detailed description of the rationale, methods and results of the population study involving nearly a million individuals conducted by the author in collaboration with colleagues in Stockholm and London. The study finds evidence that children who achieve either exceptionally high, or very low grades at school, are at greater risk of adult mental health disorders. Specifically the research shows that schizophrenia is linked to low educational attainment and that excellent school performance, especially within the creative arts, is a risk factor for bipolar disorder. This book will be of interest to mental health professionals including psychologists, psychiatrists and epidemiologists, and will also prove useful to those working in education.

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