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Book

Asylum in the community

Editors:
CARRIER John, TOMLINSON Dylan
Publisher:
Routledge
Publication year:
1996
Pagination:
238p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
London

Based on an empirical examination of psychiatric care in the past and present with an international focus. Critically assesses the concept of asylum and shows how it can be operationalised for services outside the hospital. Uses this analysis to establish the key elements of asylum that should be considered in developing contemporary community services for people with mental health problems.

Journal article

Exploring the relationship between intimate partner violence, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders among female drug users in Barcelona

Authors:
GILCHRIST Gail, BLÁZQUEZ Alicia, TORRENS Marta
Journal article citation:
Advances in Dual Diagnosis, 5(2), 2012, pp.46-58.
Publisher:
Emerald

Histories of psychiatric disorders, intimate partner violence and childhood abuse are common in female substance users in treatment. Research suggests that such histories result in poorer treatment outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between intimate partner violence, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders among 118 female drug users in treatment in Barcelona, Spain. The risk of experiencing intimate partner violence were nearly 2.5 times greater among those with any depressive disorder, over three times greater for those who reported ever attempting suicide, met criteria for borderline personality disorder, had been abused in childhood or currently lived with a substance user. Only living with a substance user and a history of childhood abuse remained significant in the model examining intimate partner violence victimisation. The authors concluded that histories of intimate partner violence and childhood abuse should be identified and addressed in substance abuse treatment to enhance treatment outcomes.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Burden of chronic physical conditions and mental disorders in primary care

Authors:
FERNÁNDEZ Anna, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(4), April 2010, pp.302-309.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

The World Health Organization (WHO) has projected HIV/AIDS, unipolar depression and ischaemic heart disease to be the three leading causes of burden of disease in 2030. This paper estimates the health-related quality of life and quality-adjusted life-year losses associated with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in primary healthcare using data from the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in primary care study, an epidemiological survey carried out with primary care patients in Catalonia, Spain. Using a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 3815 primary care patients, a preference-based measure of health was derived from the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF–12): the Short Form–6D (SF–6D) multi-attribute health-status classification. Each profile created by the questionnaire had a weight assigned to it. Using non-parametric quantile regressions to model the association between both mental disorders, chronic physical condition and SF–6D scores, findings showed that the top three causes of quality-adjusted life-year losses annually per 100 000 participants were pain (5064), mood disorders (2634) and anxiety (805). In conclusion, estimation of quality-adjusted life-year losses showed that mood disorders ranked second behind pain-related chronic medical conditions.

Journal article

Prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents from a Spanish slum

Authors:
EZPELETA Lourdes, et al
Journal article citation:
Social Science and Medicine, 64(4), February 2007, pp.842-849.
Publisher:
Elsevier

This paper reports rates of psychopathology in a population of 9- and 13-yr olds from a Spanish slum. Two cohorts of all the children born in 1989 and in 1993 and registered in the census of a municipality in 2001 were assessed over a 3-yr period with structured diagnostic interviews and functional measures. In the first year of the study 79 (53.7%) children of the adolescent 13-yr-old population and 72 (59.5%) of the pre-adolescent 9-yr-old population participated. Between 30% and 60% of preadolescents and between 30% and 50% of adolescents presented some mental disorder. Anxiety and disruptive behaviour disorders were the most frequent disorders in both cohorts. For both genders, the highest risk for any psychopathology was at 10 yr. It was found that, psychopathology and functional impairment decreased with age, and that the psychopathology of children in a peripheral slum of a big city is 3 times higher than the median of the general population. This information should be useful for administrators providing services for children from the most disadvantaged segment of the population.

Journal article

Unemployment benefits, job search activity and mental health: discouraging or buffering effects?

Author:
MALMBERG-HEIMONEN Ira
Journal article citation:
Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 25(1), 2005, pp.2-16.
Publisher:
Universitetsforlaget AS

The modern welfare state forms an important buffer against individual market risks, but has become less effective. Changes are being made in labour market policies generally by restricting access to unemployment benefits and by linking benefits to job search activity. Nevertheless, the effects of these changes are in many cases inconsistent and minor. This study investigates whether unemployment benefits have an impact on job search patterns and whether they are associated in some way with the risks of mental health problems. The study included young unemployed 18-24 year-olds from four countries including Sweden, Finland, Germany and Spain.

Journal article

Screening of dementia in community-dwelling elderly through informant report

Authors:
MORALES Jose-Manuel, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12(8), August 1997, pp.808-816.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Screening tools for cognitive decline still have low accuracy for dementia, mainly in cases of mild dementia. All of them are affected by factors such as age, sex educational level, sensory deficits and several mental disorders. This study validates a Spanish version (S-IQCODE) of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (I-QCODE), a dementia screening questionnaire in Spanish population-based samples. The results obtained with the S-IQCODE show that it could possibly be applied in screening for dementia in community-dwelling elderly.

Book

Sheltered employment in five member states of the Council of Europe: Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

Authors:
SAMOY Erik, WATERPLAS Lina
Publisher:
Council of Europe
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
67p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Strasbourg

Comparative study looking at the situation of sheltered employment in the twelve Member States of the European Union. The data for each country is grouped under the following headings: institutional context; target population; access to sheltered employment; characteristics of the people in sheltered employment; and a discussion of the topics currently under debate around sheltered employment in each country.

Book

Evaluation of comprehensive care of the mentally ill: the transition from mental hospital care to extramural care of the mentally ill in European Community Countries

Editors:
FREEMAN Hugh, HENDERSON John
Publishers:
Gaskell, Royal College of Psychiatrists
Publication year:
1991
Pagination:
220p.,tables,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
London
Journal article

Abnormal emotional processing in maltreated children diagnosed of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Author:
BERTO Clara
Journal article citation:
Child Abuse and Neglect, 73, 2017, pp.45-50.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Maltreated children usually show a specific pattern of emotional and behavioural symptoms that exceed those relating to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These symptoms have been defined as Complex PTSD (CPTSD). The underlying attentional mechanisms of abnormal emotional processing and their relation to the clinical presentation of CPTSD are not well understood. A visual dot-probe paradigm involving pre-attentive (i.e., 500 ms) and attentive (i.e., 1500 ms) presentation rates of neutral versus emotional (i.e., angry, happy or sad) facial expressions was applied. Twenty-one maltreated CPTSD children were compared with twenty-six controls. The results are as follows: an attention bias away from threatening faces and an attentional bias towards sad faces were observed in maltreated CPTSD children during pre-attentive and attentive processing. Whereas the attentional bias away from angry faces was associated with social problems, the attentional bias towards sad faces was associated with depressive and withdrawn symptoms. Therefore, CPTSD children develop maladaptive negative cognitive styles, which may underlie not only social problems (by a cognitive avoidance of threatening stimuli) but also depressive symptoms (by a cognitive approach to sad stimuli). Attention processing abnormalities should be considered as therapeutic targets for new treatment approaches in this population. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Effect of anxiety on memory for emotional information in older adults

Authors:
HERRERA Sara, MONTORIO Ignacio, CABRERA Isabel
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 21(4), 2017, pp.362-368.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Background: Several studies have shown that anxiety is associated with a better memory of negative events. However, this anxiety-related memory bias has not been studied in the elderly, in which there is a preferential processing of positive information. Objectives: To study the effect of anxiety in a recognition task and an autobiographical memory task in 102 older adults with high and low levels of trait anxiety. Method: Negative, positive and neutral pictures were used in the recognition task. In the autobiographical memory task, memories of the participants’ lives were recorded, how they felt when thinking about them, and the personal relevance of these memories. Results: In the recognition task, no anxiety-related bias was found toward negative information. Individuals with high trait anxiety were found to remember less positive pictures than those with low trait anxiety. In the autobiographical memory task, both groups remembered negative and positive events equally. However, people with high trait anxiety remembered life experiences with more negative emotions, especially when remembering negative events. Individuals with low trait anxiety tended to feel more positive emotions when remembering their life experiences and most of these referred to feeling positive emotions when remembering negative events. Conclusions: Older adults with anxiety tend to recognise less positive information and to present more negative emotions when remembering life events; while individuals without anxiety have a more positive experience of negative memories. (Edited publisher abstract)

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