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Journal article

Experiences of clients who have made the transition from the psychiatric hospital to community service provision: a phenomenological approach

Authors:
MANNIX-MCNAMARA Patricia, et al
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 14(1), 2012, pp.44-56.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Mental health and well-being are fundamental to the quality of life and the productivity of individuals, families and communities, enabling people to experience life as meaningful. Deinstitutionalisation, the replacement of long-stay hospitals with community-based alternatives, can have favourable outcomes for people experiencing mental health problems. However, in many cases the community services needed for comprehensive care are not available. This raises the question as to whether the move from the long-stay hospital has been positive or not for health of clients. Therefore, it is important to examine clients' lived experiences of such a move. This study, carried out over the period of 1 year, sought to qualitatively explore the lived experiences of clients who made the transition from institutional-based care to community service provision. Nine residents took part in the study, and the average time spent in various institutions varied from 1 to 13 years. Findings indicated that participants experienced a significant change in their lives in relation to their psychological, physical and social health and well-being. Freedom for self-determination and living in an environment that gives them autonomy is at the core of their personal experience. It could be argued that deinstitutionalisation generated a shift in client experience in relation to their health and well-being.

Journal article

The Mental Health Act 2001, Irish and European law, and the contribution they make towards protecting the rights of people in relation to involuntary admission to psychiatric hospitals in Ireland

Author:
JOY Brid
Journal article citation:
Irish Social Worker, Autumn 2012, pp.20-25.
Publisher:
Irish Association of Social Workers

For many years Irish law was reluctant to conform to international laws in relation to the treatment of persons with a mental disorder. This changed with the implementation of the 2001 Mental Health Act. The 2001 Mental Health Act helped to bring Irish mental health law into conformity with the European Convention for the protection of human rights and assisted in giving fundamental freedoms to individuals involuntarily admitted. This article examines the current rights individuals involuntarily admitted to psychiatric institutions have in Ireland, and how the laws serve to protect these individuals. It focuses particularly on the effects the 2001 Mental Health Act is having these rights and looks at how the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) acts as a protective force for those who are involuntarily admitted in Ireland. It concludes that, while there are some criticisms of the laws protecting those involuntarily admitted in Ireland, there have also been considerable positive developments.

Journal article

The Men’s Group

Author:
PEET Steven
Journal article citation:
Groupwork, 21(2), 2011, pp.50-60.
Publisher:
Whiting and Birch

This paper describes and reflects upon the work done by the author’s in his first social work fieldwork placement of establishing and running a therapeutic group. The ‘Men’s Group’ was based in a day-centre for clients with mainly mental health issues in a rural area of West Cork. The activities undertaken by the group aimed to bring the men together in a sense of joint endeavour and acceptance. The paper examines the first 6 weeks of the group, particularly looking at what worked and what didn’t. The paper aims to: position the theoretical perspective being used by the group; discuss roles and behaviours within the group; consider the role of the author in the group; and to reflect upon the author's learning experience.

Journal article

Psychological distress as a key component of psychosocial functioning in community-dwelling older people

Authors:
SCHNITTGER Rebecca I. B., et al
Journal article citation:
Aging and Mental Health, 16(1-2), January 2012, pp.199-207.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Psychological distress is a critical issue affecting the quality of life in older adults with implications for both mental and physical health. The aim of this study was to explore the key components of psychosocial functioning in older adults with a focus on identifying the constituents of psychological distress. Another aim was to examine the relationship between these components and health outcomes such as frailty. The study was conducted at the Technology Research for Independent Living Clinic, a comprehensive geriatric assessment facility in Dublin. As part of a structured clinical assessment, 579 participants completed 9 primary psychosocial measures as well as a broad range of health and demographic secondary assessments. Principal factor analysis identified 3 core dimensions of the construct of psychosocial functioning. The first is related to a core internal component of psychological distress. The 2 other components are related to external and physiological functioning, specifically social support networks and sleep. These components, particularly psychological distress, were found to be associated with health outcomes associated with frailty.

Journal article

An occupational perspective of the recovery journey in mental health

Authors:
KELLY Mary, LAMONT Scott, BRUNERO Scott
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73(3), March 2010, pp.129-135.
Publisher:
College of Occupational Therapists

The philosophy of occupational therapy and that of recovery are markedly similar; however, there is limited research linking occupation to recovery in mental health. This study aimed to explore the relationship between recovery and occupation in consumers with mental health problems. A qualitative method in the form of narratives was chosen in exploring the uniquely subjective experiences of mental health, occupation and recovery. Five members of a mental health support group (GROW) were engaged in semi-structured interviews, whereby individual narratives were analysed through comparative methods to identify categories and themes. Five categories emerged: (1) The recovery map, (2) GROW has just given me the platform, (3) You have to become active, (4) The great barriers and (5) Where am I now ... I couldn't bear it if I was any better. The participants' experiences of recovery highlighted the necessity for occupational engagement in a supported environment. The benefits of occupation included feelings of social cohesion, meaning, purpose, normalisation, routine, competence, productivity, skill acquisition, routine and pleasure. These factors enabled the participants to re-establish self-concepts and subsequently promoted mental health. The findings may have implications for occupational therapy practice, whereby occupational therapy could facilitate a leadership role in recovery-orientated mental health services.

Journal article

The practice of geriatric psychiatry in three countries: observations of an American in the British Isles

Author:
REIFLER B.V.
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12(8), August 1997, pp.795-807.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The author compares the practice of geriatric psychiatry among the three countries: Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Reviews how the practice of geriatric psychiatry is carried out, and the mental health services available in each country, including organisational characteristics. Findings suggest the USA is the most entrepreneurial of the three, Britain's greatest strength is the uniformity and comprehensiveness of its services, and Ireland provides an excellent model for nations of comparable size. Also found that considerable change is occurring in all three countries.

Book

Asylum in the community

Editors:
CARRIER John, TOMLINSON Dylan
Publisher:
Routledge
Publication year:
1996
Pagination:
238p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
London

Based on an empirical examination of psychiatric care in the past and present with an international focus. Critically assesses the concept of asylum and shows how it can be operationalised for services outside the hospital. Uses this analysis to establish the key elements of asylum that should be considered in developing contemporary community services for people with mental health problems.

Journal article

Geographical barriers to mental health service care among individuals with an intellectual disability in the Republic of Ireland

Authors:
RAMSAY Hugh, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 13(4), 2016, pp.261-268.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

People with an intellectual disability (ID) are more likely to experience mental health difficulties than others. The United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) states that health services should be provided close to people's own communities. This article examines differences in access to psychiatry services for those with an ID according to geography, in the context of a small European country (Republic of Ireland). The sample consisted of 753 individuals aged 40 and over with ID in the Republic of Ireland, with data collected from the Intellectual Disability Supplement of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (IDS-TILDA). The primary outcome of interest was attendance with any psychiatrist and the primary independent variables were area of residence (health service region and degree of county urbanicity). Logistic regression was used to analyse associations, unadjusted and then controlling for age group, gender and level of ID. Secondary analysis examined factors associated with anti-psychotic prescription without psychiatrist supervision. Treatment by a psychiatrist was associated with both health region (p = 0.029) and degree of urbanicity (p = 0.015) before controlling for group differences but only the health region was significantly associated after controlling for age, gender and level of ID. Antipsychotic use without a psychiatrist was associated with degree of urbanicity (p = 0.036) but not with health service region (p = 0.989). Geographic factors are associated with access to mental health services among those with ID in the Republic of Ireland. This may be partly due to movement of people with ID away from their area of origin, highlighting the need for locally tailored specialist ID mental health teams and for further research into barriers to treatment. Additional work in other countries will further understanding of similar roles of geographic factors in mediating mental health services access. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The relationship between mental health literacy regarding schizophrenia and psychiatric stigma in the Republic of Ireland

Authors:
O'KEEFFE Donal, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 25(2), 2016, pp.100-108.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Background: There is an unclear relationship between mental health literacy (MHL) and psychiatric stigma. MHL is associated with both positive and negative attitudes to mental illness. Aims: This study was conducted to assess MHL regarding schizophrenia and the degree of psychiatric stigma displayed by the general public in the Republic of Ireland. Method: A face-to-face in-home omnibus survey was conducted with a representative sample of residents of the Republic of Ireland. Participants (N = 1001) were presented with a vignette depicting schizophrenia and were asked questions to determine their ability to recognise the condition and to ascertain their attitudes towards schizophrenia and mental illness. Results: Among the participants, 34.1% correctly identified schizophrenia. Higher age, higher socioeconomic status, and an urban geographic location predicted identification. Those who did not correctly identify schizophrenia were significantly more optimistic about recovery and perceived people with schizophrenia as less dangerous. However, only the relationship with perceived dangerousness was considered robust. Conclusions: Participants with higher MHL displayed more negative attitudes to mental illness. Findings have implications internationally for MHL and anti-stigma campaigns. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Severity of hospital-treated self-cutting and risk of future self-harm: a national registry study

Authors:
LARKIN Celine, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 23(3), 2014, pp.115-119.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Background: Risk assessment forms a key component in self-harm management. Among self-harm presentations generally, lethality of an index act is a poor predictor of future non-fatal repetition. However, no study has examined whether severity of an index self-cutting episode is associated with prospective repetition. Aims: To examine factors associated with severity of self-cutting and in particular the association between severity of self-cutting and prospective repetition of self-harm. Methods: All index self-cutting presentations to emergency departments in Ireland over 5 years were grouped by treatment received and compared on the basis of demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Receiving more extensive medical treatment was associated with male gender, being aged more than 15 years, and not combining self-harm methods. Receiving less extensive treatment conferred a higher risk of prospective 12-month repetition, even after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Repeat self-harm presentations by those with more severe self-cutting in an index act were less prevalent but were more likely to involve high-lethality methods of self-harm. Discussion: The results indicate that the already-elevated repetition risk among self-cutting patients is further increased for those receiving less extensive wound closure treatment. Severity of self-cutting might also affect suicide risk but such an association has yet to be examined. (Publisher abstract)

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