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Journal article

Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims

Authors:
SCHAEFER Gerard A., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21(3), 2012, pp.343-360.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Research in the area of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been rarely initiated, conceptualised, and conducted by victims themselves. This article describes a study conducted by the German victim-run support group MOGiS e.V. in order to add victims' perspectives to understanding of this topic. An aim of the study was to investigate how being affected by CSA directly or indirectly influences estimates of the prevalence of CSA. Another aim of was to determine the magnitude of symptoms of impaired psychosocial functioning among CSA victims. An online survey was completed by 502 participants over the period October 2009 to March 2010. The article reports on the: characteristics of victims of CSA; age at victimisation; nature of CSA; nonsexual abuse; perpetrator gender and age; perpetrator-victim relationship; legal action; feelings of guilt; and psychosocial impairment. The findings showed extensive impaired psychosocial functioning among CSA victims with a significant relationship between the severity of the experienced offense and the number of reported symptoms of psychosocial impairment. With respect to estimating the prevalence of CSA, affected participants estimated significantly higher rates compared to nonaffected participants. The results indicate that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

Journal article

Self-chosen involvement in new religious movements (NRMs): well-being and mental health from a longitudinal perspective

Authors:
NAMINI S., MURKEN S.
Journal article citation:
Mental Health Religion and Culture, 12(6), September 2009, pp.561-585.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

In this study, the question of whether current or past involvement with a new religious movement (NRM) has an adverse effect on psychosocial adjustment is investigated from a longitudinal perspective in an empirical study carried out in Germany which focused on people who became involved with an NRM as adults without having been socialised in the group with selected participants from 3 NRMs in Germany (a Pentecostal parish within the Federation of Pentecostal Churches, the New Apostolic Church and Jehovah's Witnesses). The article provides an overview of previous international studies on mental health and membership in NRMs and reports on the German study, in which life satisfaction, depression and anxiety were investigated over 3 years for 2 groups: 51 individuals who remained in the chosen NRM and 9 individuals who left the Pentecostal parish during the course of the study. The results indicated that joining an NRM is often preceded by some kind of (retrospectively reported) crisis, that well-being increases with involvement and that well-being and mental health during involvement with the groups proved to be relatively stable and comparable to that of other groups from the general population. The researchers concluded that involvement with an NRM is not generally associated with impaired mental health, and that there was no indication that the association between religion and mental health in the context of NRMs is different from that in the context of more traditional religions.

Journal article

The relationship between spiritual experiences, transpersonal trust, social support, and sense of coherence and mental distress - a comparison of spiritually practising and non-practising samples

Authors:
KOHLS Niko, WALACH Harald, WIRTZ Markus
Journal article citation:
Mental Health Religion and Culture, 12(1), January 2009, pp.1-23.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

The pathways from exceptional experiences (measured with the Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, EEQ), transpersonal trust (TPV), social support (F-SoZu) and sense of coherence (SOC) scales towards mental distress within a spiritually practising (SP) and a non-practising sample (NSP) were compared, using structural equation modelling. A high amount of variance explained for SOC, a moderate amount for F-SoZU and for TPV a very small amount only in the SP sample were found. In contrast, for the EEQ, which grasps positive and negative spiritual, psychopathological, and visionary dream experiences, a strong relationship was found for the NSP sample but only a moderate relationship for the SP sample. Further analysis revealed that the path coefficients from positive, negative spiritual, and psychopathological experiences to distress were significantly lower in the SP sample. Thus, as regular spiritual practice seems to alter the pathways to distress derived from positive and negative spiritual and psychopathological experiences, unidimensional questionnaires only grasping positive spiritual experiences seem to be inappropriate for explaining the intrapersonal mechanisms associated with regular spiritual practice.

Journal article Full text available online for free

How the law and welfare combine for children and families where there is parental mental illness: inter-country comparisons of professional practice

Author:
HETHERINGTON Rachael
Journal article citation:
Social Work in Europe, 8(3), 2001, pp.29-36.
Publisher:
Russell House

Reports on inter-country comparative research into social work practice. The project was set up to research the responses of mental health and child care welfare systems for children who have a mentally ill parent.

Journal article

Self sufficiency in residence

Author:
JERVIS Margaret
Journal article citation:
Social Work Today, 3.5.90, 1990, pp.20-21.
Publisher:
British Association of Social Workers

Residents at the Lore Agnes House, in Dusseldorf, suffer from mental illness, often in addition to dementia. The home offers a form of family living.

Journal article

Psychological defense styles, childhood adversities and psychopathology in adulthood

Authors:
NICKEL R., EGLE U.T.
Journal article citation:
Child Abuse and Neglect, 30(2), February 2006, pp.157-170.
Publisher:
Elsevier

The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defence styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, the authors examine whether the adversities reported and immature defence styles are associated with psychopathological symptoms. Two hundred and sixty six consecutive inpatients in the psychosomatic department and 109 consecutive inpatients who had been treated for low-back pain in the orthopaedic department of a German university hospital were examined. Psychological defence styles were assessed by a two-factor solution of the German modified adaptation of the Defense Mechanism Inventory (DMI), childhood adversities by a structured interview, psychological distress by the SCL-90-R, and somatization by the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS). Both samples demonstrated a significant link between immature defence styles and the extent of overall psychological distress as well as somatization. Reported sexual and/or physical abuse of patients in both patient samples was directly associated with somatization. It is concluded that recollections of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood and immature defence styles have an association with psychopathology in adulthood. This finding suggests that immature defence styles may act, in part, as mediators between the adversities investigated and adult psychopathology.

Journal article

Unemployment benefits, job search activity and mental health: discouraging or buffering effects?

Author:
MALMBERG-HEIMONEN Ira
Journal article citation:
Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 25(1), 2005, pp.2-16.
Publisher:
Universitetsforlaget AS

The modern welfare state forms an important buffer against individual market risks, but has become less effective. Changes are being made in labour market policies generally by restricting access to unemployment benefits and by linking benefits to job search activity. Nevertheless, the effects of these changes are in many cases inconsistent and minor. This study investigates whether unemployment benefits have an impact on job search patterns and whether they are associated in some way with the risks of mental health problems. The study included young unemployed 18-24 year-olds from four countries including Sweden, Finland, Germany and Spain.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Euthanasia in Nazi Germany

Author:
MADDEN J.S.
Journal article citation:
Psychiatric Bulletin, 24(9), September 2000, p.347.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

The 11th international Congress of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) was held in Hamburg during August 1999. The most memorable feature of the successful event was not the presence of 10, 000 psychiatrists from 96 countries, nor their 6000 papers, nor the elegance of the rebuilt city, but a poignant exhibition prepared by the German society for psychiatry, psychotherapy and neurology. The presentation, titled 'In Memoriam', described the war time extermination within Germany of 180, 000 psychiatric patients. The killers were their psychiatrists.

Book

Sheltered employment in five member states of the Council of Europe: Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

Authors:
SAMOY Erik, WATERPLAS Lina
Publisher:
Council of Europe
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
67p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Strasbourg

Comparative study looking at the situation of sheltered employment in the twelve Member States of the European Union. The data for each country is grouped under the following headings: institutional context; target population; access to sheltered employment; characteristics of the people in sheltered employment; and a discussion of the topics currently under debate around sheltered employment in each country.

Book

Pathways to the management of mentally ill offenders in the criminal justice system

Authors:
MANNA Adelmo, KUROSAWA Ryosuke, HAMAI Koichi
Publisher:
United Nations. Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
Publication year:
1993
Pagination:
272p.
Place of publication:
Rome

Reviews experiences from a wide range of countries in dealing with people with mental health problems within the criminal justice system.

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