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Journal article

Finding common ground: the boundaries and interconnections between faith-based organisations and mental health services

Authors:
LEAVEY Gerard, DURA-VILA Gloria, KING Michael
Journal article citation:
Mental Health Religion and Culture, 15(4), 2012, pp.349-362.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Healing, in theological terms, and from sociological and anthropological theoretical perspectives, is a central function of most religions. A common theme in the literature of religion and mental health is the need for dialogue between psychiatry and faith-based organisations in the care of people with mental health problems. There are, hover, boundaries that are so tightly drawn that it is hard to see where they might share values and concerns. This article explores the interface areas of religion and mental health care in order to consider where consensus and from where collaboration might emerge. It suggests that while certainly there is a need for dialogue and mutual understanding, there is also a need for psychiatry and faith groups to explore the nature and boundaries of proposed relationships. The article explores: the role of faith-based organisations in mental health care; the role of clergy in mental health care; and the role of religion in psychiatry.

Journal article Full text available online for free

The devil is in the detail: partnerships between psychiatry and faith-based organisations

Authors:
LEAVEY Gerard, KING Michael
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(8), August 2007, pp.97-98.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Clergy continue to have a central role in many communities and the utility of their involvement in the care of people with mental health problems is increasingly argued. However, there has been a failure to examine the form and parameters of partnerships between faith-based organisations and psychiatry.

Journal article

Religion, spirituality and mental health: results from a national study of English households

Authors:
KING Michael, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(1), 2013, pp.68-73.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Data collected from interviews with 7403 people who participated in the third National Psychiatric Morbidity Study in England were analysed to examine associations between a spiritual or religious understanding of life and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses. Of the participants 35% had a religious understanding of life, 19% were spiritual but not religious and 46% were neither religious nor spiritual. Religious people were similar to those who were neither religious nor spiritual with regard to the prevalence of mental disorders, except that the former were less likely to have ever used drugs or be a hazardous drinker. Spiritual people were more likely than those who were neither religious nor spiritual to have ever used or be dependent on drugs, and to have abnormal eating attitudes, generalised anxiety disorder, any phobia or any neurotic disorder. They were also more likely to be taking psychotropic medication. The study concludes that people who have a spiritual understanding of life in the absence of a religious framework are vulnerable to mental disorder. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article Full text available online for free

Prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice attendees across Europe

Authors:
KING Michael, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 192(5), May 2008, pp.362-367.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Unselected attendees to general practices in the UK, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Estonia and The Netherlands were assessed for major depression, panic syndrome and other anxiety syndrome. Prevalence of DSM–IV major depression, other anxiety syndrome and panic syndrome was compared between the UK and other countries after taking account of differences in demographic factors and practice consultation rates. Prevalence was estimated in 2344 men and 4865 women. The highest prevalence for all disorders occurred in the UK and Spain, and lowest in Slovenia and The Netherlands. Men aged 30–50 and women aged 18–30 had the highest prevalence of major depression; men aged 40–60 had the highest prevalence of anxiety, and men and women aged 40–50 had the highest prevalence of panic syndrome. Demographic factors accounted for the variance between the UK and Spain but otherwise had little impact on the significance of observed country differences. These results add to the evidence for real differences between European countries in prevalence of psychological disorders and show that the burden of care on general practitioners varies markedly between countries.

Journal article

Religion, mental health and ethnicity. EMPIRIC – A national survey of England

Authors:
KING Michael, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 15(2), April 2006, pp.153-162.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Higher levels of religious involvement are modestly associated with better health, after taking account of other influences. This study aimed to compare prevalence and characteristics of religious and spiritual views of life in representative samples of all principal ethnic groups in England and to examine associations between these views and common mental disorders (CMD). Face-to-face interviews with 4,281 adults from six ethnic groups living in private households in England were used in the study. Data were collected on common mental disorders, religious and spiritual beliefs, quality of life, social function and support, and psychotic symptoms. The results found there was no difference in prevalence of CMD between people who were religious and those who were not. However, people who held a spiritual life view but without religious practice were more likely to have CMD than people who held a religious life view, after adjustment for relevant confounding variables. Lack of religious belief was associated with a higher prevalence of CMD, but only in people who reported having a spiritual life view.

Journal article

Exploration of three stigma scales in 83 users of mental health services: implications for campaigns to reduce stigma

Authors:
BAGLEY Christopher, KING Michael
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 14(4), August 2005, pp.343-355.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

 While research has addressed negative public attitudes which may stigmatize users of psychiatric services, how users themselves perceive, feel and react to stigma has been less well studied. This study aims to explore the use of standardized measures of how users perceive, react to and cope with stigma, in ways which are open to change. The reliability of three adapted American scales measuring how service users perceive and react to public stigma is explored through the responses of 83 current or former users of psychiatric services. Following the establishment of the internal reliability of items in the three scales, it is observed that an important minority of users reacted positively to potential stigma, wishing to confront these stigmatizing attitudes. The authors conclude that ultimately it is changes in feelings of personal stigma by users themselves which should be the most valid indicators of the success or otherwise of expensive public campaigns. Established scales are one way of evaluating whether campaigns against stigma influence how users and former users of mental health services experience such stigma.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Sexual molestation of males: associations with psychological disturbance

Authors:
KING Michael, COXELL Adrian, MEZEY Gillian
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, August 2002, pp.153-157.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Reports on a study to investigate whether sexual abuse in men is a significant predictor of psychological problems. A sample of men attending general practice took part in a computerised interview about sexual abuse as children or adults. Results found that men who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological disturbance. Men who reported sexual abuse in adulthood were more likely to have experienced a psychological disorder, but self-harm was the single most likely problem to occur. Men reporting 'consenting' sexual experiences when aged under 16 years were also more likely to report acts of self harm.

Journal article Full text available online for free

A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people

Authors:
KING Michael, et al
Journal article citation:
BMC Psychiatry, 8(70), August 2008, Online only
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Place of publication:
London

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to find out the prevalence of mental disorder, substance misuse, suicide, suicidal ideation and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people. Twenty five studies, mostly cross-sectional studies from the USA, met the selection criteria and were included in the review. Data from 20 studies was included in a meta-analysis. The evidence suggests that, compared to heterosexual controls, lesbian, gay and bisexual (LBG) people are at higher risk of all of the outcomes studied. The evidence is limited by the small number of studies for each outcome measured.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Mental health and quality of life of gay men and lesbians in England and Wales

Authors:
KING Michael, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 183(12), December 2003, pp.552-558.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

The aim was to To compare psychological status, quality of life and use of mental health services by lesbians and gay men with heterosexual people. Cross-sectional study was made in England and Wales using 'snowball' sampling. Participants: 656 gay men, 505 heterosexual men, 430 lesbians and 588 heterosexual women. Gay men were more likely than heterosexual men to score above threshold on the Clinical Interview Schedule, indicating greater levels of psychological distress (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43), as were lesbians compared with heterosexual women (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.52). Gay men and lesbians were more likely than heterosexuals to have consulted a mental health professional in the past, deliberately harmed themselves and used recreational drugs. Lesbians were more likely to have experienced verbal and physical intimidation and to consume more alcohol than heterosexual women. Awareness of mental health issues for gay men and lesbians should become a standard part of training for mental health professionals, who need to be aware of the potential for substance misuse and self-harm in this group and of the discrimination experienced by many lesbians.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups

Authors:
KING Michael, et al
Journal article citation:
British Medical Journal, 29.10.94, 1994, pp.1115-1119.
Publisher:
British Medical Association

Compares the annual incidence of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. Concludes that raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to Afro-Caribbeans, and suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants of psychotic disorders found.

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