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Journal article

The public stigma of mental illness and drug addiction: findings from a stratified random sample

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., KUWABARA Sachiko A., O'SHAUGHNESSY John
Journal article citation:
Journal of Social Work, 9(2), April 2009, pp.139-147.
Publisher:
Sage

Previous research has shown that people labelled with drug addiction are viewed as more blameworthy and dangerous compared to individuals labelled with mental illness who, in turn, are viewed more harshly than those with physical disabilities. Endorsement of such stereotypes often lead to less helping behaviour and more avoidance of people with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. In this study, attribution and dangerousness models are tested on a stratified random sample of the US population. The sample was recruited from a national online research panel (N = 815). Research participants read a vignette about a person with one of the three health conditions (mental illness, drug addiction, or physically handicapped in a wheelchair) and were asked to complete items representing attribution and dangerousness judgments about the person.  Results found addiction to drugs was seen as more blameworthy and dangerous compared to mental illness.

Journal article

The stigma of psychiatric disorders and the gender, ethnicity, and education of the perceiver

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., WATSON Amy C.
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 43(5), October 2007, pp.439-458.
Publisher:
Springer

The purpose of this American study is to determine how the demographics of perceivers influence their stigma of people with mental illness or with substance abuse. A nationally representative sample (N = 968) was asked to respond to a vignette describing a person with a health condition (schizophrenia, drug dependence, or emphysema) and his/her family member. Consistent with the hypotheses, women were less likely to endorse stigma than men. Participants with higher education were also less likely to stigmatize than less educated participants. Contrary to our expectations, non-white research participants were more likely to endorse stigma than whites. Implications of these findings for better understanding the stigma of mental illness, and the development of anti-stigma programs, are reviewed.

Journal article

Will filmed presentations of education and contact diminish mental illness stigma?

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., et al
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 43(2), April 2007, pp.171-181.
Publisher:
Springer

This study examines the impact of two versions of anti-stigma programs - education and contact -presented on videotape. A total of 244 people from a Chicago community college were randomly assigned to education or contact conditions and completed pre-test, post-test, and follow-up measures of stereotypes. Results suggest that the education videotape had limited effects, mostly showing improvement in responsibility (people with mental illness are not to blame for their symptoms and disabilities). Watching the contact videotaped showed significant improvement in pity, empowerment, coercion, and segregation. Contact effects were evident at post-test and 1 week follow-up. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

Journal article

Place first, then train: An alternative to the medical model of psychiatric rehabilitation

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., McCRACKEN Stanley G.
Journal article citation:
Social Work: A journal of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 50(1), January 2005, pp.31-39.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The medical model has promoted a train-place model for psychiatric rehabilitation which carefully trains people with psychiatric disabilities on a range of skills so they can handle real-world demands before placing them in work and independent living situations. More consistent with a social work perspective are place-train programmes, which rapidly place people with psychiatric disorders in real-world settings so they can experience the benefits as well as the challenges of these situations, and then provide the necessary training and support to successfully maintain these placements. This article compares the 2 models and shows that place-train approaches can help people with serious mental illness attain many of their work and housing goals without increasing the frequency of relapse.

Journal article

'Aggressive' and 'problem-focused' models of case management for the severely mentally ill

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., KAYTON-WEINBERG Donna
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 29(5), October 1993, pp.449-458.
Publisher:
Springer

Discusses the relative merits and limitations of two models of case management - 'aggressive' and 'problem-focused'. Although aggressive case management has a well-established history of improving the community tenure of deinstitutionalised patients, individuals participating in this treatment are likely to become dependent on health care providers and hence require indeterminate assistance. Problem-focused case management teaches patients how to identify and resolve community-based predicaments thereby making them relatively more independent of the mental health system. Patients receiving problem-focused case management however, need reasonably competent cognitive functions thereby ruling out participation of the most severely disabled individuals. An interaction of the two approaches is proposed in which aggressive and problem-focused case management is selected depending on the patient's current needs, cognitive deficit, and level of social support.

Journal article

Changing public stigma with continuum beliefs

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 26(5), 2017, pp.411-418.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Background: Given the egregious effect of public stigma on the lives of people with mental illness, researchers have sought to unpack and identify effective components of anti-stigma programmes. Aim: The authors expect to show that continuum messages have more positive effect on stigma and affirming attitudes (beliefs that people with mental illness recover and should be personally empowered) than categorical perspectives. The effect of continuum beliefs will interact with contact strategies. Method: A total of 598 research participants were randomly assigned to online presentations representing one of the six conditions: three messages (continuum, categorical, or neutral control) by two processes (education or contact). Participants completed measures of continuum beliefs (as a manipulation check), stigma and affirming attitudes after viewing the condition. Results: Continuum messages had significantly better effect on views that people with mental illness are “different,” a finding that interacted with contact. Continuum messages also had better effects on recovery beliefs, once again an effect that interacted significantly with contact. Conclusions: Implications of these findings for improving anti-stigma programsmes are discussed. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

What is the impact of self-stigma? loss of self-respect and the “why try” effect

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 25(1), 2016, pp.10-15.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

Background: The “Why Try” phenomenon, a consequence of self-stigma, is a sense of futility that occurs when people believe they are unworthy or incapable of achieving personal goals because they apply the stereotypes of mental illness to themselves. Aims: This study examines a four-stage model of self-stigma (aware, agree, apply, and self-stigma harm) and examines the “why try” effect as a result. We do that by testing a measure of “why try.” Method: Two hypothetical path models were tested. In the first, applying stereotypes to oneself leads to diminished self-respect and a sense of “why try”. In the second, the effect of applying stereotypes on “why try” is mediated by diminished self-respect. Participants completed the “why try” measure along with measures of self-stigma, public stigma, recovery, and empowerment. Results: Results show application of stereotypes to oneself predicts diminished self-respect and “why try”. “Why try” was significantly associated with agreement with public stigma, depression, and diminished sense of personal recovery. Conclusions: Findings from this study reveal the complex impact of self-stigma demonstrating its emotional and behavioural consequences. Implications for impacting self-stigma are discussed. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Changing stigmatizing perceptions and recollections about mental illness: the effects of NAMI’s In Our Own Voice

Authors:
CORRIGAN Patrick W., et al
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 46(5), October 2010, pp.517-522.
Publisher:
Springer

In Our Own Voice (IOOV) is a 90-min anti-stigma video that comprises face-to-face stories of challenges of mental illness and hopes and dreams commensurate with recovery. The video was reduced to a 30-min version, using information from two focus groups. This study contrasts the effects of 90- versus 30-min IOOV program against 30 min of education. Two hundred research participants were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and completed a measure of stigmatizing perceptions and recollections. People in the education group remembered more negatives than the two IOOV groups. To control for overall response rate, a difference ratio was determined (difference in positive and negative recollection divided by overall recollections). Results showed the two IOOV conditions had significantly better ratios than education. These findings suggest the 30 min version of IOOV is as effective as the 90 min standard.

Journal article

DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness

Authors:
BEN-ZEEV Dror, YOUNG Michael A., CORRIGAN Patrick W.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Mental Health, 19(4), August 2010, pp.318-327.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare
Place of publication:
London

The relationship between diagnostic labels and stigma is examined in the context of the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Three types of negative outcome are considered in detail: public stigma, the phenomenon of large social groups endorsing stereotypes about, and subsequently acting against a stigmatised group; self stigma, the loss of self-esteem and self-efficacy that occurs when people internalise public stigma; and label avoidance, when sufferers do not seek out or participate in mental health services in order to avoid the impact of a stigmatised label. The authors illustrate how a clinical diagnosis may exacerbate these forms of stigma through socio-cognitive processes of groupness, homogeneity and stability. Initial draft revisions recently proposed by the DSM-V work groups are briefly discussed from the framework of mental illness stigma. The authors believe that the initial drafts of DSM-V show a trend of greater transparency and movement toward more dimensional approaches to diagnosis which may help reduce stigma in the future, but also include several proposals that may have a negative impact on stigma.

Journal article

What motivates public support for legally mandated mental health treatment?

Authors:
WATSON Amy C., CORRIGAN Patrick W., ANGELL Beth
Journal article citation:
Social Work Research, 29(2), June 2005, pp.87-94.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The use of legal coercion to compel individuals to participate in mental health treatment is expanding despite a lack of empirical support for many of its forms. Policies supporting mandated treatment are made by legislators and judges, often based on perceptions of public concern. Using sample data of 1,444 people from the MacArthur Mental Health Module contained in the 1996 General Social Survey, the authors examined the impact of political ideology, attributions about the cause of mental illness, and perceptions of dangerousness in determining public support for legally mandated mental health treatment in the USA.  Perceived dangerousness and attributions about the cause of the mental disorder were significant predictors of support for legally mandated treatment. Conservative political ideology was related to attributing the vignette problem to bad character, indirectly affecting support for legal coercion.

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