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Journal article

Predictors of depressive symptomatology among lower social class caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness

Authors:
SONG Li-yu, BIEGEL David E., MILLIGAN Sharon E.
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 33(4), August 1997, pp.269-286.
Publisher:
Springer

Examines the predictors of depressive symptomatology among caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness. Data were collected through in-person interviews with family caregivers of adults with chronic mental illness who were served by mental health case management agencies in the USA. The results indicated that insufficiency of overall social support was the most powerful predictor of caregiver depressive symptomatology. Higher levels of client behavioural problems and insufficient support from family members and mental health professionals related to the caregiving role were associated with higher levels of caregiver depressive symptomatology through their associations with caregiver burden. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

Journal article

Barriers to social network interventions with persons with severe and persistent mental illness: a survey of mental health case managers

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., TRACY Elizabeth M., SONG Li-yu
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 31(4), August 1995, pp.335-349.
Publisher:
Springer

Reports research in the USA which sought to analyse the knowledge and attitudes of social networks and social network interventions of eighty mental health case managers and case management supervisors. Findings indicated gaps in case managers' level of knowledge of social networks, and perceived obstacles that affect their ability to develop social network interventions - system barriers (paperwork, case load size, lack of case manager time), community barriers (stigma and lack of resources), and client/family barriers (lack of interest in social networks, a 'burnt-out' network).

Journal article

Strengthening social networks: intervention strategies for mental health case managers

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., et al
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Work, 19(3), August 1994, pp.206-216.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The enhancement of social support networks for people with chronic mental illness is seen as an important thrust of case management services in the USA. However, despite the worthy intentions of the National Institute of Mental Health Community Support Program, the development of comprehensive, community-based social support systems for people with chronic mental illness remains an elusive goal. Case managers face many obstacles in their efforts to enhance the natural support systems of their clients, and they need specific training in social network interventions with individuals with mental illness to overcome these obstacles. This article presents a conceptual framework of social network interventions and discusses obstacles to enhancing natural support systems. The need for community resource development, especially in the building of community ties, is highlighted.

Journal article

Predictors of competitive employment among consumers with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., et al
Journal article citation:
Research on Social Work Practice, 20(2), March 2010, pp.191-201.
Publisher:
Sage

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, mental health and substance use status, functioning and life status, work history and work interest, and agency organisational and community characteristics on competitive employment of people with co-occurring mental and substance disorders, using a longitudinal study with a sample of 191 consumers from mental health agencies receiving Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment services, including a subgroup which was referred for Supported Employment services. The results showed that consumers with schizoaffective disorder, greater psychiatric distress, and those not referred for Supported Employment services were less likely to enter competitive employment, and that lack of previous employment and perceived disability negatively affected employment. The article discusses the implications for mental health practice, service delivery and future research.

Journal article

Predictors of depressive symptomatology in family caregivers of women with substance use disorders or co-occurring substance use and mental disorders

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Family Social Work, 13(1), January 2010, pp.25-44.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

Families play a significant role in the well-being of relatives with co-occurring substance misuse and mental health problems through the provision of direct care, management of symptoms, retention of treatment and emotional support. This paper describes a stress-process model to investigate the impact of having a female family member with substance use or co-occurring substance use and mental disorder on family caregivers’ depressive symptomatology. Eighty two women receiving substance abuse treatment and the family member providing the most social support for each woman participated. Findings showed that greater caregiver depressive symptomatology was predicted by greater care recipient emotional problems, less care recipient social support, and poor caregiver health. The caregivers were twice as likely to suffer from depressive symptomatology compared to those in the general population. In conclusion, the author suggests that interventions aimed at improving the care recipients’ social network may help to improve the carers well-being.

Journal article

Predictors of burden of family caregivers of women with substance use disorders or co-occurring substance and mental disorders

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 7(1/2), 2007, pp.25-49.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This American study examined the impact of having a female family member with a substance use or co-occurring disorders on family caregivers. Predictors of subjective burden (worry, stigma, and displeasure) and objective burden (family disruption) on caregivers and on types of burden were explored. Subjects were 82 women receiving substance abuse treatment and their family member providing most social support. Behavioural problems of the recipient and lack of social support for caregivers predicted higher levels of family member burden, with different types of social support predicting different types of burden. Having a dual disorder did not predict family member burden. Implications of findings for treatment are discussed. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street,  Binghamton, NY 13904-1580).

Journal article

Personal social networks and disorders: a literature review and implications for practice and future research

Authors:
TRACY Elizabeth M., BIEGEL David E.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 2(2), 2006, pp.59-88.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

This literature review aimed to examine the literature on social networks and dual disorders, and the separate literatures on social networks in relation to mental illness and substance abuse respectively and to consider implications for practice and research. Papers selected for review included empirical studies of social networks and/or social support of adults with diagnosed substance use and/or mental disorders. Thirty-six studies met the criteria for review which is organized around three themes: structural characteristics of social networks, network composition, and the impact of social networks on treatment and recovery. The results found that social networks function both as a predictor as well as an outcome of mental illness and substance use. Understanding and assessment of social networks is important to understanding addictive behaviours. The review highlights the need for further research in the following areas: the role of social networks in readiness for treatment, entry into and participation in treatment, and support for recovery; the impact of treatment and peer support programs on social networks; social networks in relation to a wider range of mental disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety and post traumatic stress disorder); and the impact of race, ethnicity, and gender on social networks of adults with dual disorders. In addition, the role that families play in treatment and recovery as well as the impact of clients' dual disorders upon family members needs examination. (Copies of this article are available from: Haworth Document Delivery Centre, Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street,  Binghamton, NY 13904-1580).

Journal article

Facilitators and barriers to support group participation for family caregivers of adults with mental Illness

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., SHAFRAN Robert D., JOHNSEN Jeffrey A.
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 40(2), April 2004, pp.151-166.
Publisher:
Springer

Few low-income and minority caregivers of persons with serious mental illness participate in support groups. This study examined the facilitators and barriers to participation in support groups for families of persons with serious mental illness among lower socioeconomic African-American and Caucasian family caregivers. Three hypotheses were tested in a multivariate model which included need, enabling and predisposing variables utilizing a revised version of the Andersen model. Support group membership was hypothesized to be predicted by a higher perceived cost-benefit ratio (benefits minus costs) of group participation, fewer numbers of access barriers and higher levels of service use. A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used. Subjects were 145 lower socioeconomic status African-American and Caucasian family caregivers, 65 of whom were current support group members and 80 of whom had never participated in support groups. Findings confirmed that support group members reported a more favorable cost-benefit ratio and fewer access barriers than did non-support group members, controlling for other variables. Level of non-support group service use was not significantly different for support and non-support group members. Non-members' assessments of support group participation may be based on inaccurate perceptions and/or incomplete knowledge. Educational campaigns, sponsored by support groups and mental health authorities focusing on both perceptions about support groups as well as structural impediments to participation, such as access barriers, should be undertaken.

Journal article

The impact of caregiver-care recipient relationship quality on family caregivers of women with substance use disorders of co-occurring substance and mental disorders

Authors:
KATZ-SALTZMAN Shiri, BIEGEL David E., TOWNSEND Aloen
Journal article citation:
Journal of Family Social Work, 11(2), 2008, pp.141-165.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

A cross-sectional, interview-based study of 82 carers of female family members with a substance use, or co-occurring substance use and mental health disorder, is reported, with the aim of assessing carer burden. Regression findings indicate that relationship quality influences both subjective and objective burden. Higher levels of emotional support given to the care recipient by the carer predicted lower levels of carer displeasure, while higher levels of undermining of the care recipient by the carer predicted higher levels of carer stigma. Higher levels of emotional support received by the carer from the care recipient were associated with lower carer displeasure and lower objective burden, while higher levels of undermining of the carer by the care recipient predicted higher objective burden. The implications for practice and service delivery are discussed.

Journal article

Predictors of burden among lower socioeconomic status caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness

Authors:
BIEGEL David E., et al
Journal article citation:
Community Mental Health Journal, 30(5), October 1994, pp.473-494.
Publisher:
Springer

Uses a stress-coping-support framework to examine the predictors of caregiver burden with a sample of 103 lower social class family caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness. Results show that the greater the frequency of client behavioural symptoms and the lower the amount of perceived support from family members, the higher the level of overall caregiver burden. Examination of the predictors of specific types of burden-family disruption, stigma, strain, and dependency - reveal that different constellations of variables predict different types of burden. The need for mental health agencies to address caregiver and client concerns is addressed. Implications are presented for practice and future research.

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