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Journal article

The empty rhetoric of inclusion

Author:
JACKSON Robin
Journal article citation:
Learning Disability Today, 15(3), May/June 2015, pp.22-24.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

The author argues that recent policies of inclusion with learning disabilities risk achieving the opposite effect as they fail to take into account the needs of this population. It raises the lack of specialist training course to equip teachers with the skills to teach pupils with learning disabilities; the marketisation of social care could result in of low cost services and poorly trained staff; the use of CCTV in care homes which could lead to a reduction in the numbers of skilled staff employed; and the financial vulnerability of many care homes, resulting in the ownership of care home falling into fewer hands. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Alcohol and intellectual disability: personal problem or cultural exclusion?

Author:
SIMPSON Murray
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 16(3), September 2012, pp.183-192.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Studies on alcohol use among adults with intellectual disabilities suggest that their usage is significantly less than the general population, with very high levels of abstinence. Despite this, the literature focuses almost exclusively on the people who do have problems, attempting to lead to the conclusion that adults with intellectual disabilities are more vulnerable to alcohol misuse. This article tries to show that this approach is deeply flawed and is both predicated on and leads to an impoverished view of alcohol use. The aim is to reorient the discussion to make it more culturally sensitive, less focussed on alcohol ‘problems’ and more geared towards the socially constructive aspects of drinking. Today, in the majority of countries, alcohol plays a major role in the cultural lives of most people. We might therefore expect to see access to alcohol feature as part of general strategies for helping people with intellectual disabilities to overcome social exclusion and become more full participants in their communities. The article opens up new lines of exploration around the significance of abstinence, why it might occur to such a high degree and whether, in fact, it might itself be and also point towards the cultural exclusion of people with intellectual disabilities.

Journal article

Challenging behaviour and associated risk factors: an overview (part I)

Authors:
KORITSAS Stella, IACONO Teresa
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 6(4), 2012, pp.199-214.
Publisher:
Emerald

This review, the first in a two-part series, explores challenging behaviour in adults, its prevalence, risk factors and causes. It aims to provide an overview of prevalence studies and explore the various risk factors that have been associated with challenging behaviour. The authors also seek to explore methodological differences across studies that may contribute to the prevalence variations reported in the literature. The article summarises the findings from frequently cited prevalence studies as well as more recent studies. The prevalence of challenging behaviour reported in the literature has varied due to methodological differences across studies. Despite this, the best estimate is believed to be from 15 to 17.5 per cent. A range of factors have been associated with challenging behaviour and include gender, age, severity of disability and residential setting.

Journal article

Intelligence involves risk-awareness and intellectual disability involves risk-unawareness: implications of a theory of common sense

Authors:
GREENSPAN Stephen, SWITZKY Harvey N., WOODS George W.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 36(4), December 2011, pp.246-257.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

The concepts of intelligence and common sense are discussed in this article in the context of defining intellectual disability. The article suggests that measures of intelligence, such as IQ tests, do not adequately address the core deficit in intellectual disability. It discusses a theory of common sense, defining common sense as "awareness of obvious social or practical risk". It presents a content model of risk, and discusses risk-awareness and unawareness, why people with intellectual disability are especially at risk, and the implications of a dynamic model of common sense for defining and diagnosing intellectual disability. The authors argue for adoption of the approach that intellectual disability is a common sense deficit disorder.

Journal article

Vulnerability to depression in adolescents with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
KIDDLE Hannah, DAGNAN Dave
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 5(1), January 2011, pp.3-8.
Publisher:
Emerald

This paper provides a selective review of developmental risk factors relating to depression in typically developing adolescents and considers how the life experiences and the social context of adolescents with intellectual disability may increase their sensitivity to identified risk factors for depression. A number of factors are highlighted as important in the development of mental health problems including attachment, child temperament and parenting behaviour, and a number of risk factors specific to depression, including genetic vulnerability, parental depression, negative life events and peer relations. Many of these experiences are particularly prevalent in the lives of young people with intellectual disabilities. These include experience of the social stigma attached to intellectual disability, increased exposure to negative life-events, social and emotion recognition deficits, and increased rates of parental stress and associated depression. These life experiences and consequent increased susceptibility to risk factors may help explain the higher rate of depression in adolescents with intellectual disability. The authors suggest that a consideration of developmental factors and their interaction with the person’s social environment may offer a possible framework for prevention and early intervention with adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

Journal article

A retrospective study of historical risk factors for pathological arson in adults with mild learning disabilities

Authors:
KELLY Julia, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Forensic Practice, 11(2), July 2009, pp.17-23.
Publisher:
Emerald

This pilot study investigated three historical risk factors for pathological arson identified in Jackson's Only Viable Option theory (Jackson, 1994), which views the act as an adaptive response to circumstances that are difficult to tolerate and which the individual does not have the necessary skills to resolve by appropriate means. Twenty men with mild learning disabilities were recruited from inpatient forensic services. It was hypothesised that there would be a greater incidence of risk factors among individuals with an index offence of arson than those without, and that risk factors would significantly predict an index offence of arson. Significant differences were found between the groups for perceived inability to effect social change and childhood experiences of fire, but not for the family problems under investigation. However, the sample size was too small to draw reliable conclusions on the predictive ability of the risk factors. The findings suggest that perceived inability to effect social change and childhood experiences of fire are risk factors characteristic of men with learning disabilities who have set fires, lending support to elements of Jackson's theory and providing opportunities to develop evidence-based practice. However, the underlying causes of these risk-factor characteristics remain unclear. It is hoped that the present study will help inform the choice of risk factors under investigation and improve the design of a larger study.

Journal article

What factors are related to a negative outcome of self-injurious behaviour during childhood in pervasive developmental disorders?

Authors:
BAGHDADLI A., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21(1), March 2008, pp.142-149.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study aimed to explore the factors related to the outcome of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Children with PDD were assessed on individual and environmental variables at time 1 and 3 years later. A questionnaire about the presence or absence of SIB was also administered at both times in order to examine the early course of SIB. The findings suggest an association between a negative outcome and several aspects of the children’s behaviour. Children with a negative outcome differed from the others in having greater speech impairment, more cognitive and adaptive deficits, and more severe signs of autism. When these variables were entered into a multivariate model for predicting the outcome of SIB, only speech deficits and autism severity were significant risk factors. The importance of these findings for improving our understanding of SIB is discussed.

Journal article

Gambling with people's lives

Authors:
STANNARD Aruna, SHELMERDINE Susan
Journal article citation:
Viewpoint, March 2007, pp.22-23.
Publisher:
Mencap/Gateway

The authors investigate whether the expansion of gambling opportunities in Britain could cause problems for some people with a learning disability and highlight the need for appropriate protection.

Digital Media

Safety first

Authors:
SPEAKUP SELF ADVOCACY, BUBBLE MEDIA, (Producers)
Publisher:
Speakup Self Advocacy
Publication year:
2001
Pagination:
DVD
Place of publication:
Rotherham

Being safe means looking out for dangers when you are out and about, in the home, at work and when you are having fun. Daryl is making lunch, he is using the cooker to make soup and boil an egg. Could you see the danger? See what happens when Shelley comes in! Kathy's gone for a walk in the woods. She thinks she's safe, but she's on her own. Do you think that's safe? This DVD has lots of ideas for keeping safe.

Journal article

Risk factors for psychiatric disturbance in children with intellectual disability

Authors:
KOSKENTAUSTA T., IIVANAINEN M.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(1), January 2007, pp.43-53.
Publisher:
Wiley

Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting. The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6–13 years from an area of Finland. Data were obtained from case files and the following four questionnaires completed by their parents or other carers: Developmental Behaviour Checklist, American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale, a questionnaire on additional disabilities, and a questionnaire on family characteristics and child development. The risk of psychopathology was most significantly increased by moderate ID, limitations in adaptive behaviour, impaired language development, poor socialization, living with one biological parent, and low socio-economic status of the family. The risk of psychopathology in children with ID is increased by factors related to family characteristics and child development. Identifying these factors will help diagnose and possibly prevent psychiatric disorders in these children.

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