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Journal article

Intellectual disability, personality disorder and offending: a systematic review

Authors:
RAYNER Kelly, et al
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(2), 2015, pp.50-61.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: This review seeks to systematically review studies where personality disorder has been explored as a descriptive or possible predictive factor in offending behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach A systematic search of several databases was conducted and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Findings: Methodological limitations and problems in accurate diagnosis within this client group preclude firm conclusions being reached. Originality/value: It is concluded that further research should be conducted, with particular attention paid to the conceptualisation and assessment of personality disorder. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Arson treatment programmes for offenders with disability: a systematic review of the literature

Authors:
CURTIS Ashlee, McVILLY Keith, DAY Andrew
Journal article citation:
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 3(4), 2012, pp.196-205.
Publisher:
Emerald

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken in order to identify and evaluate treatment for adult fire setters with an intellectual disability. The review also took into account programmes for fire setters in the wider population, including those for children and adolescents, given that such research might also inform the development of programmes for offenders with an intellectual disability. Only four studies which evaluated treatment programmes specifically for arsonists with an intellectual disability were identified. Although each of these studies reported a reduction in fire-setting behaviour following programme completion, all employed relatively weak research designs. An additional 12 studies investigating programmes for arsonists without intellectual disability were also identified. It is concluded that there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment programme outcomes for arsonists with an intellectual disability. The extent to which such programmes can be adapted to suit adult offenders with an intellectual disability is discussed, with recommendations made for the design and evaluation of arson treatment programmes for offenders with intellectual disabilities. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Inpatient assessment of young people with developmental disabilities who offend

Author:
GRALTON Ernest
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 7(2), 2013, pp.108-116.
Publisher:
Emerald

A clinician working provides a brief overview of the needs of young people with developmental disabilities in a secure forensic service setting. The requirements for inpatient assessment and treatment are also discussed. The author highlights the complex nature of this population who are often referred relatively late to inpatient services, often after recurrent failings in residential services where mental disorders are commonly unrecognised. Comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment and treatment are required for this group. This paper will be useful to a range of professionals dealing with adolescents with developmental disabilities who are engaging in offending and other high risk behaviours. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

No one knows, offenders with learning disabilities and learning difficulties

Author:
TALBOT Jenny
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 14(1), February 2009, pp.18-26.
Publisher:
Emerald

There is a lack of clarity about the prevalence of offenders with learning disabilities and learning difficulties. However, it is clear is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning disabilities and learning difficulties that interfere with their ability to cope within the criminal justice system. No One Knows is a UK-wide programme led by the Prison Reform Trust that aims to effect change by exploring and publicising the experiences of people with learning disabilities and learning difficulties who come into contact with the criminal justice system. The article highlights the aims of the No One Knows programme and considers recent research on prevalence, the views of prison staff on how prisoners with learning disabilities of difficulties were identified and their needs met, and draws attention to some of the reasons for the different findings.

Journal article

Assessing fitness to plead in Scotland's learning disabled

Authors:
BREWSTER Eleanor, WILLOX Elizabeth G., HAUT Fabian
Journal article citation:
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (The), 19(4), December 2008, pp.597-602.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

The authors reviewed 139 pre-trial psychiatric court reports from learning disability services within Scotland to consider the appropriate application of case law in determining fitness to plead. Of the reports in the sample, 40% correctly applied the test. Fitness to plead was not discussed at all in 9.3%. Almost 8% of the sample were assessed as unfit to plead, with all of this sub-group having had both criteria considered to determine their fitness to plead. This sub-group all had a mild or moderate learning disability with only one dual diagnosis. This would seem to indicate that evidence of a learning disability is in itself sufficient to require consideration of the accused's fitness to plead as directed by Scottish case law.

Journal article

Personality disorder and offending in people with learning disabilities

Author:
TORR Jenny
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, 2(1), March 2008, pp.4-10.
Publisher:
Emerald

This article reviews the literature on personality disorder in offenders with learning disabilities, using Medline, PsychoInfo and CINAHL databases, and search terms ‘offending’, ‘personality disorder and intellectual disabilities’, ‘learning disabilities’ and related terms. Methods of defining offending population, personality disorder and learning disabilities vary greatly, and few studies focus specifically on personality disorder, learning disability and offending. The definition of learning disability often encompasses both borderline learning disability and low average intelligence. Personality disorder, especially anti-social personality disorder, is prevalent in offenders with learning difficulties, but less than in the general population, and is associated with higher levels of security and poorer outcomes. The study concludes that there is a continuum of offenders with borderlines and mild learning disabilities, reflected in learning disability forensic services.

Journal article

Arson: characteristics and predisposing factors in offenders with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
DEVAPRIAM John, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Forensic Practice, 9(4), December 2007, pp.23-27.
Publisher:
Emerald

This retrospective study focuses on examining the characteristics of offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the range of identified reasons for the offence. The study population consisted of 1,100 patients with ID who were in contact with psychiatric services at the Leicestershire Frith Hospital. Fifteen patients were identified as having committed arson. The findings indicate a higher prevalence of arson in this population, along with the fact that the majority of people with ID who have committed arson tend to bypass the criminal justice system. A significant number are likely to repeat the behaviour and will also commit other offences. The most common reason for arson appears to be revenge, closely followed by suggestibility. The majority has an associated diagnosis of personality disorders along with Axis 1 psychiatric diagnosis. Other factors include large family size, history of childhood psychiatric disorders, abuse, homelessness, unemployment and relationship difficulties.

Journal article

Locus of control in offenders and alleged offenders with learning disabilities

Authors:
GOODMAN Wendy, LEGGETT Janice, GARRETT Tanya
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(3), September 2007, pp.192-197.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A new 20-item measure, using written statements and cartoons, was developed. The tool was then used to compare locus of control in offenders and alleged offenders (n = 41) and non-offenders (n = 61) with learning disabilities. A significant relationship was found between locus of control and offender status if the offender was convicted (n = 22). Where there was offending behaviour but no conviction (n = 19), there was no significant difference between this group and the non-offender sample. Convicted offenders with intellectual disabilities appear more likely to have a greater external locus of control than alleged or non-offenders. The new locus of control scale may be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders with learning disabilities.

Journal article

No One Knows: offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities

Authors:
TALBOT Jenny, RILEY Chris
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(3), September 2007, pp.154-161.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court or being unable to access various aspects of the prison regime, including some offending behaviour programmes. Offenders with learning difficulties are not routinely identified and, as a result, often do not receive the support they need. No One Knows is a UK wide programme led by the Prison Reform Trust that aims to effect change by exploring and publicizing the experiences of people with learning difficulties who come into contact with the criminal justice system. The article highlights the aims of No One Knows and describes what, for the purpose of the programme, we mean by ‘learning difficulties and learning disabilities’. Problems in identifying precise numbers of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities are discussed and attention drawn to recent research on prevalence. The context and some of the challenges of ‘prison life’ are identified and a number of early research findings from No One Knows are presented.

Journal article

Empathy and theory of mind in offenders with intellectual disability

Authors:
PROCTOR Tracey, BEAIL Nigel
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 32(2), June 2007, pp.82-93.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Little research has been carried out on empathy and theory of mind in offenders with intellectual disability (ID) and these concepts are often poorly defined.  Various models of empathy and theory of mind are discussed and scores on 2 empathy and 3 theory of mind tasks are compared for 25 offenders with ID and 25 non-offenders with ID (all male). Differences were found in empathy and theory of mind performance of offenders and non-offenders with ID. Offenders performed better than non-offenders on a second order theory of mind task and on emotion recognition. They required fewer prompts to mention emotions, and gave empathic/caring responses more often than non-offenders when observing happiness (but not sadness or anger). Results suggest that offenders with ID may have better, rather than poorer, empathy and theory of mind abilities than non-offenders, and that empathy training is therefore not indicated for this group.

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