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Journal article Full text available online for free

Positive group psychotherapy modified for adults with intellectual disabilities

Author:
TOMASULO Daniel J
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 18(4), 2014, pp.337-350.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Mental health problems are more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. There is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and meaningful lives with improved relationships. This article focuses on a review of evidence for interactive behavioural therapy, a widely used model of group psychotherapy for people with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems, and reviews the modifications drawn from the field of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy being incorporated into the model. A sample of a modified positive intervention, the virtual gratitude visit, is explained and suggestions for future research are given. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The efficacy of positive behavioural support with the most challenging behaviour: the evidence and its implications

Authors:
LAVIGNA Gary W., WILLIS Thomas J.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37(3), September 2012, pp.185-195.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. However, questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. This review examined the efficacy of 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases. Findings indicated that PBS was effective with both severe and high-rate behaviour problems, was cost-effective, used a methodology that was easily trained and widely disseminated, and worked in institutional settings in which the most difficult problems are thought to be, as well as in the community. The major implication of this review is that practitioners may be obligated to use PBS when faced with the need to develop a plan of support given the ethical principle of using the least restrictive method consistent with the right to effective treatment. Implications for practice are discussed.

Journal article

Respite and parental relinquishment of care: a comprehensive review of the available literature

Authors:
NANKERVIS Karen L., ROSEWARNE Andrea C., VASSOS Maria V.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 8(3), September 2011, pp.150-162.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Families often have to relinquish care of a family member with a disability. The disabled person is often placed in respite care until suitable permanent accommodation is organised or they are able to return home. This literature review examined the issues associated with the need for urgent respite and how this need may link to relinquishment of care. Findings indicated that many families and carers feel that their respite needs are not being met and that certain individual and family characteristics are associated with need for urgent respite (such as severe disability, poor support, and carer distress). Relinquishment involving other client groups' suggests increased requests for respite being an early warning sign for relinquishment. It also notes that challenging behaviours, poor coping and lack of support, dire financial concerns, and carer distress are factors that often lead to relinquishment. Interventions such as active support and cognitive behavioural therapy can support families who are considering relinquishment or have relinquished care. Empirically based information regarding relinquishment of care involving people with intellectual disabilities is limited. The authors urge further research into this issue to aid the identification of strategies to more effectively support families.

Journal article

The clinical management and prevention of pica: a retrospective follow-up of 41 individuals with intellectual disabilities and pica

Authors:
WILLIAMS Don E., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22(2), March 2009, pp.210-215.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Pica is a very dangerous form of self-injurious behaviour because one occurrence can be lethal. This study describes an intervention for people with intellectual disabilities and pica that included comprehensive management of the environment as well as behaviour treatment over a 9-year period. Over a 9-year period, nine surgeries for pica-related incidents occurred prior to intervention; over the 9 years of intervention, pica surgeries were eliminated. Eighty-five percent of participants experienced a 75–100% reduction in pica. Sixteen participants still had restrictive procedures including oral hygiene, overcorrection, contingent personal restraint, contingent mechanical restraint and visual screening with goggles. All continuous mechanical restraint that had been used in baseline was eliminated. People with intellectual disabilities and dangerous pica can be protected on a long-term basis from serious harm if proper management and clinical interventions are both employed. Although restrictive interventions were used on a long-term basis, they were contingent upon a pica incident or pica attempts, which occurred much lower than in baseline sessions. Resident rights were protected throughout the intervention.

Journal article

Physical restraint of people with intellectual disability: a review of implementation reduction and elimination procedures

Author:
LUISELLI James K.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22(2), March 2009, pp.126-134.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This review describes procedures to reduce and eliminate physical restraint of people with intellectual disability. One approach is to assess antecedent conditions associated with restraint and change them so that they no longer produce restraint-provoking behaviour. A second approach is to decrease the duration of restraint by establishing a fixed-time release (FTR) criterion. Research supporting these approaches within community-based service settings are presented. Results found physical restraint can be effectively reduced and eliminated using antecedent intervention procedures and FTR contingencies.

Journal article

Following up Fighting Fit: the long-term impact of health practitioner input on obesity and BMI amongst adults with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
CHAPMAN Melanie J., CRAVEN Michael J., CHADWICK Darren D.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 12(4), December 2008, pp.309-323.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

This article presents findings on the long-term impact of health practitioner input to reduce obesity amongst adults with intellectual disabilities. Body mass index (BMI) was measured for an input group (N = 33) and a comparison group (N = 40) 6 years after the input group first received input. Data on BMI were collected at baseline, 6 months, 1 year and 6 years. Mean BMI for the input group reduced steadily over 6 years. Mean BMI in the non-input group rose initially, stabilized and then decreased (although remaining higher than at baseline). The input group demonstrated improvements in obesity levels and lost more weight than the non-input group. However, the differences between groups did not reach statistical significance. This and the improvements in BMI within the non-input group may be due to the relatively small sample size, effect size and the impact of other local initiatives.

Journal article

A discussion of individual variability, in activity-based interventions, using the niche concept

Authors:
DADA S., GRANLUND M., ALANT E.
Journal article citation:
Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(4), July 2007, pp.424-431.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Activity-based intervention has been defined as a child-directed, transactional approach that uses logically occurring antecedents and consequences to develop functional and generative skills by embedding intervention of children’s individual goals and objectives in routine, planned or child-initiated activities. In this approach, clear goals and objectives that are functional and embedded in a play activities or routines are developed. The teacher mediates the child’s environment to facilitate learning with the child directing the teacher on the pace, duration spent on the objective. Learning and development in this framework occur through both a carefully planned environment and adult facilitation. Progress made by a child using this approach focuses on observational data that describe if the child is able to respond in functional and generative ways. While activity-based interventions are usually provided for a group of children, progress is measured by describing individual children’s responses. Individual variations in the children’s progress, despite exposure to the same interventions are an area that is seldom discussed. This article aims to explore the niche concept and its application to explaining this variation between individuals. Four children participated in this single-subject, multiple-probe study across four participants. A 3-week long activity-based aided language stimulation programme was developed. The effect of the programme was determined by describing the individual participants understanding of the 24 targeted vocabulary items The results of the activity-based language programme are presented and the variability among the participants is discussed using the niche concept. The role of the niche concept in individual development is described and the implications thereof are discussed. Finally, activity-based intervention research is placed in a systems perspective and possible outcome measures of this intervention are discussed from a multidimensional ecological perspective.

Journal article

Cognitive-behavioural intervention for people with intellectual disability and anxiety disorders

Authors:
DAGHAN Dave, JAHODA Andrew
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.91-97.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Distinct cognitive models and treatments have been developed for people without intellectual disability with a wide range of anxiety disorders. However, these have not been reported as applied to people with intellectual disabilities. In fact, much of the cognitive therapy literature for people with intellectual disabilities does not distinguish between different presentations of anxiety. The authors take the particular example of social phobia and describe the specific cognitive model and associated intervention developed for people without intellectual disabilities. They then consider research on the social context of people with intellectual disability and research on developmental factors predictive of anxiety and make suggestions for adaptation of treatment approaches. It is suggested that such an approach would be useful to apply to other anxiety presentations and to identify areas for further clinical and research development.

Journal article

Positive behavioural support: definition, current status and future directions

Authors:
ALLEN David, et al
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 10(2), April 2005, pp.4-11.
Publisher:
Emerald

Summarises the historical development of positive behavioural support. Describes the main features of this approach and outlines the evidence for its effectiveness. Discusses reasons that relatively few people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour appear to have access to this form of therapeutic intervention, and makes recommendations for future development.

Journal article

Genetic and behavioural aspects of Prader-Willi Syndrome: a review with a translation of the original paper

Authors:
CLARKE D.J., BOER Harm, WEBB Tessa
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap Research, 8(1), 1995, pp.38-53.
Publisher:
BIMH Publications

An English translation of the 1956 paper in which Prader, Lahart and Willi originally described the syndrome which now bears their name is followed by a discussion of the advances in understanding regarding genetic and behavioural aspects which have occurred during the intervening years.

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