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Journal article

Mortality in people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
HESLOP Pauline, LAUER Emily, HOGHTON Matt
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 28(5), 2015, pp.367-372.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is important. It explains how an understanding of mortality can help understand how healthy people are and also help determine whether a person has died too soon. The paper also introduces the papers in this special edition of the Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Health disparities of adults with intellectual disabilities: what do we know? What do we do?

Authors:
KRAHN Gloria L., FOX Michael H.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(5), 2014, pp.431-446.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: Building on historical context, the paper summarises what is known about health disparities from reports and research and provides direction on what to do to reduce these disparities among adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The present authors examined literature from 2002 to 2011 on health disparities and people with disabilities looking for broad themes on documenting disparities and on research approaches and methods. Results: Multiple countries published reports on health of people with intellectual disabilities. Researchers summarized existing research within a health disparities framework. A number of promising methodologies are identified such as health services research, health indicators, enhanced surveillance and mixed-methods. Conclusions: Strategies to reduce health disparities include use of data to educate decision makers, attention to social determinants and a life-course model and emphasis on leveraging inclusion in mainstream services where possible. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

A masculine perspective of gendered topics in the research literature on males and females with intellectual disability

Authors:
WILSON Nathan J., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 35(1), March 2010, pp.1-8.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

This article explores the idea that a focus on male social pathologies may have evolved within parts of the intellectual disability research literature. It makes some connections between mainstream gender theory about hegemonic masculinity and the current gendered discourse in intellectual disability research. This review conducted a thematic analysis of all journal article titles from four prominent intellectual disability journals where man, woman, men, women, male, female, girl, and boy were in the title. Thematic differences were identified between articles that focused on males or females, with less research attention on male health compared with female health. A strong focus was evident on problematised male sexual behaviour. The authors suggests that there is a difference apparent between articles that problematise males and articles for females encouraging health promotion that suggests a disparate focus on male social pathologies. In conclusion, a deeper contextual analysis of unique sex differences in research is suggested.

Journal article

Autonomy in relation to health among people with intellectual disability: a literature review

Authors:
WULLINK M., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(9), September 2009, pp.816-826.
Publisher:
Wiley

Since the 1990s, individualisation, participation, normalisation and inclusion have been the main principles of care for people with intellectual disability. Autonomy has become an increasingly important issue. This review of the literature tried to answer the question: how do people with intellectual disabilities exercise autonomy in relation to health? Searches in Cochrane, Medline and PsycINFO were based on the following aspects of autonomy: self-determination, independence, self-regulation and self-realisation. Thirty-nine of 791 articles met our criteria, including 14 on self-determination, seven on independence, 15 on self-regulation and three on self-realisation. In spite of decades of promoting autonomy, the exercise of autonomy in relation to health has so far rarely been an issue in the literature.

Journal article

Levels of engagement and barriers of physical activity in a population of adults with learning disabilities

Authors:
HAWKINS Andrew, LOOK Roger
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(4), December 2006, pp.220-226.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation in England, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning disabilities, but lower than figures for the general population. The five main barriers to physical activity identified by staff were: clients' lack of understanding of the benefits of exercise; client mood; client lack of awareness of available options for physical activity; risk assessment issues and financial constraints.

Journal article

Exploring the concept of alexithymia in the lives of people with learning disabilities

Authors:
MELLOR Karen, DAGNAN Dave
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 9(3), September 2005, pp.229-239.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Alexithymia is a construct that has attracted considerable research for people without learning disabilities. People with alexithymia have difficulties recognizing and describing emotions and have an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been closely associated with a variety of mental health and somatic problems. However, the construct of alexithymia has not been considered in respect to people with learning disabilities. This article identifies parallels between the concept of alexithymia and the emotion recognition difficulties and external cognitive styles that have been identified in people with learning disabilities. The article further identifies that many developmental factors considered important in the aetiology of alexithymia are significantly present in the lives of people with learning disabilities and that the association between alexithymia and mental health identified in other populations may also be important for people with learning disabilities. We conclude that there is a strong argument that alexithymia should be a focus of further research for people with learning disabilities.

Journal article

The development of a health status measure for self-report by people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
RUDDICK Loraine, OLIVER Chris
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 18(2), June 2005, pp.143-150.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This paper describes the development of a self-report health status measure for use with people with intellectual disabilities living in staffed community-based accommodation, and reports preliminary reliability data for the schedule. Question and response items were adapted from a well-established measure (SF-36) used in the general population incorporating subscales such as General Health, Physical Functioning, Bodily Pain, Vitality, Mental Health, and Sensory Functioning. A variety of closed and open response formats were used based on the growing literature examining methods for interviewing people with intellectual disabilities. Results found that internal reliability and response consistency were investigated. Reliability for Physical Functioning, General Health and Bodily Pain was reasonable, but was unsatisfactory for Sensory Functioning, and Mental Health. The findings are discussed in light of the challenge of eliciting reliable responses from people with intellectual disabilities. Question methodologies can be built upon in further research.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Less equal than others?

Author:
VALIOS Natalie
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 21.8.03, 2003, pp.24-26.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

Reports on recent cases which illustrate that people with learning difficulties are still being treated as second class citizens by the health service, despite the government's Valuing People policies and targets for health action plans.

Journal article

Pictures of health

Author:
HOPKINS Graham
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 11.7.02, 2002, p.40.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

Looks at a scheme to provide illustrated health information leaflets for people with learning difficulties.

Journal article

Health targets for people with an intellectual disability

Authors:
BEANGE Helen, LENNOX Nicholas, PARMENTER Trevor R.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 24(4), December 1999, pp.283-297.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Describes the development and identification of a set of health targets for adults with an intellectual disability in Australia. The authors developed the targets through a process of collaboration, consultation and literature review. The targets were included if reliable studies had shown the conditions to be highly prevalent, easily detected, and amenable to treatments that are readily available. It is envisaged that these targets will be further refined and eventually endorsed by the Australian Society for the Study of Intellectual Disability (ASSID) for presentation to the World Health Organisation in the year 2000.

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