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Journal article

An important apostrophe

Author:
WILLIAMS Paul
Journal article citation:
Community Living, 8(2), October 1994, pp.22-23.
Publisher:
Hexagon Publishing

The World Health Organisation has officially recommended the use of the term 'Down Syndrome' to replace the term 'Down's Syndrome'. Argues that there should be consultation before changing the name.

Journal article

Down syndrome: systematic review of the prevalence and nature of presentation of unipolar depression

Authors:
WALTON Catherine, KERR Mike
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 2015, pp.151-162.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence and nature of presentation of unipolar depression in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Design/methodology/approach: The PRISMA (2009) checklist for systematic review was followed where possible. Findings: Eight studies were included in the qualitative synthesis from a total of 634 records identified. The quality of the studies was then assessed: the studies all scored either 5 or 6 out of 6. The incidence of depression ranged between studies from 5 to 13 per cent. It was found that depression is more common in DS than the general intellectual disability population; this on a background of mental ill health of all causes being less common in DS. It was suggested that, excluding organic disorders, depression is the most common psychiatric problem in DS. In terms of the nature of depression, the evidence was less clear. Various “vegetative” and biological symptoms were observed, with no fixed pattern. There was evidence for withdrawal symptoms and psychosis. Research limitations/implications: The small number of studies included in this review, and their heterogeneity, highlights the need for further original research in this field. Practical implications: - An increased awareness of the frequency of depression in individuals with DS will aid in a timely diagnosis, therefore reduce psychiatric morbidity. Clinicians should be aware of the varied presentation, with no clear clinical picture, in order to maintain a high index of suspicion in an individual presenting with “atypical” symptoms. Originality/value This review has provided preliminary evidence that depression may be the most commonly experienced psychiatric disorder in DS. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Vision deficits in adults with Down Syndrome

Authors:
KRINSKY-McHALE Sharon J., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(3), 2014, pp.247-263.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: In individuals with Down syndrome, virtually all structures of the eye have some abnormality, which likely diminishes vision. The examined basic vision functions in adults with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods: Participants completed a battery of psychophysical tests that probed a comprehensive array of visual functions. The performance of adults with Down syndrome was compared with younger and older adults without intellectual disability. Results: Adults with Down syndrome had significant vision deficits, reduced sensitivity across spatial frequencies and temporal modulation rates, reduced stereopsis, impaired vernier acuity and anomalies in colour discrimination. The pattern of deficits observed was similar to those seen by researchers examining adults with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a common mechanism may be responsible for the pattern of deficits observed, possibly the presence of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology in the visual association cortex. We also showed that individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disability are capable of participating in studies employing state-of-the-art psychophysical procedures. This has wider implications in terms of their ability to participate in research that use similar techniques. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Participatory data analysis alongside co-researchers who have Down Syndrome

Author:
STEVENSON Miriam
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(1), 2013, pp.23-33.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There are not many research projects which include people with an intellectual disability in data analysis. This paper tells the story of how a small group of people with Down syndrome called co-researchers, joined in analysing data from their peers in a research project. The ‘Voices for Change’ study took place between 2007 and 2011 and the project sought to assist the young people in achieving their life goals and greater social connection using a ‘circles of support’ model. A university based researcher analysed a portion of the data set using thematic networks with the participation of co-researchers in iterative cycles of reflexivity. The participation of the co-researchers is demonstrated and a global theme, deduced from the collaborative analysis, is described. Authentic participation of co-researchers in the data analysis stage of the research process is an example of ‘inclusive research’ and assures adherence to the principles of EDR in informing the theory and practice of social inclusion for young adults with an intellectual disability. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Representation of people with intellectual disabilities in a British newspaper in 1983 and 2001

Authors:
WILKINSON Penny, MCGILL Peter
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22(1), January 2009, pp.65-76.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Articles from The Guardian newspaper in 2001 were analysed and compared to a previous analysis of material published in 1983 the examine the media representation of people with intellectual disabilities. There was much more coverage of people with autism or Down syndrome than expected from their actual frequency in the British population of people with intellectual disabilities. Newspaper reports continued to be about children more often than expected when about autism or Down syndrome, but not when about people with other intellectual disabilities. Medically related representations were less than in the past but juxtaposition with other client groups continued. More 'people-first' terminology was now used except in respect of people with autism. Articles systematically under-represented complexity and severity of need. Policy and service changes may have contributed to the decline of medically- and child-related representations within non-specific intellectual disabilities. The continued over-representation of children in articles about autism and Down syndrome, and the generally increased reference to people with those syndromes, suggests growing differentiation within the population of people with intellectual disabilities. The focus on people with less severe or complex disabilities echoes criticisms of Valuing People.

Journal article

A vision of better care

Author:
GRAY Mark
Journal article citation:
Learning Disability Today, September 2008, pp.20-21.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

This article stresses the importance of regularly checking for eye problems in people with learning disabilities . A short case study of a man with Down's syndrome who developed senile cataracts is included. The case study shows how cataracts impacted on his quality of life and independence.

Journal article

The prevalence and determinants of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
MELVILLE C.A., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21(5), September 2008, pp.425-437.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities, in a defined geographical area of Scotland, in the context of a primary care health screening programme. A total of 945 adults with intellectual disabilities were involved, all of whom were living in the community. Body mass index (BMI), demographic characteristics, socio-economic deprivation, level of intellectual disabilities and various health parameters were measured. Overall, 39.3% of women and 27.8% of men were obese, compared with 25.1% of women and 22.7% of men in the comparison general population. The mean BMI of women with intellectual disabilities was significantly greater than the mean BMI of men with intellectual disabilities, and women were more likely to be obese than men with intellectual disabilities. Regression analyses showed that for both women and men, the risk of overweight and obesity reduced as the severity of intellectual disabilities increased, and Down syndrome was associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. There is a need to carry out research to further our understanding of the reasons behind the increased prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Effective weight management interventions and accessible clinical services are required to reduce the health inequalities experienced by adults with intellectual disabilities.

Journal article

A screening programme for adults with Down's syndrome

Authors:
BACKER Clare, JERVIS Nicola
Journal article citation:
Nursing Times, 10.07.07, 2007, pp.30-31.
Publisher:
Nursing Times

People with learning disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome have more health needs than the general population. Those with Down's are more likely to experience problems involving the heart, thyroid, sensory impairment, diabetes and epilepsy. They also have an increased risk of developing dementia. This article discusses the Manchester baseline dementia screening project for people with Down's syndrome, which provided evidence on the prevalence of these conditions and identified a lack of health screening for people with Down's syndrome in the Manchester area.

Journal article

Successful experience of people with Down syndrome

Authors:
LI Eria Ping-Ying, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 10(2), June 2006, pp.143-154.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

The aim of this study was to investigate the successful experiences of people with Down syndrome to provide insights into the potential of people with intellectual disabilities. A qualitative approach was adopted, and 10 recipients of the Stevie Award for Outstanding Persons with Down syndrome were interviewed. Interviews with the participants' parents and other significant persons were also conducted. Content analysis and constant comparative method were adopted for data analysis. All 10 participants achieved in life when they demonstrated the motivation and perseverance to try new things and active involvement in extra-curricular activities and volunteer service. Role modeling and support from parents and teachers helped participants to develop talents in sports and arts. Effective family support and ongoing collaboration among family, school and community facilities are vital in enabling people with intellectual disabilities to develop their potential for a life of quality

Book

Adopting a child with down's syndrome: stage three of a longitudinal study

Authors:
MASON Kathy, HUGHES Mike, SELMAN Peter
Publisher:
Barnardo's
Publication year:
1998
Pagination:
41p.
Place of publication:
London

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