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Journal article

Context influences the motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behaviour in children diagnosed with intellectual disability with and without autism

Authors:
JOOSTEN Annette V., BUNDY Anita C., EINFELD Stewart L.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25(3), May 2012, pp.262-270.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Stereotypical and repetitive behaviours are part of normal child development. However while they diminish during the second year in typically developing children they often continue in those with intellectual disability and autism. Motivation seems to change with context, but there is little empirical evidence to support this. Data describing stereotypic behaviours from 279 Revised Motivation Assessment Scales (MAS:R) was evaluated using Rasch analysis. Data were gathered from two groups of Australian children (mean age 9.7 years): Group 1 with intellectual disability (n = 37) and Group 2 with both intellectual disability and autism (n = 37). Behaviour was examined in three contexts: free time, transition and while engaged in tasks. MAS:R distinguishes two intrinsic motivators: enhanced sensation and decreased anxiety and three extrinsic motivators: seeking attention or objects or escape. Significant differences in motivators were observed during free time and transition. No one motivator predominated while children were engaged in tasks. For both groups, sensory enhancement was a more likely motivator in free time and anxiety reduction was a more likely motivator during transition. Transition was the context most likely to influence extrinsic motivators, but there were significant differences between the groups. The authors conclude that context influences the motivation for stereotyped and repetitive behaviours; transition appears to have a particularly powerful effect.

Journal article

Learning disabilities and serious crime - sex offences

Authors:
READ Fiona, READ Elspeth
Journal article citation:
Mental Health and Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 6(1), April 2009, pp.37-51.
Publisher:
South West Yorkshire Mental Health NHS Trust and University of Huddersfield

This review paper follows on from two previous reviews of the literature with regard to, firstly, learning disability and murder and, secondly, learning disability and arson. This paper, in turn, examines the relationship, if any, between learning disability and sexual offence. The approach taken in all these papers involves the concept of Disruptive Behaviour Disorder as being the group of behaviour and personality disorders most involved in the aetiology of these criminal and anti-social behaviours. Disruptive behaviour disorders comprise: Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder; Anti-social Personality Disorder; Intermittent Explosive Disorder. The common characteristics of these disorders comprise aggression, irritability, over-activity, high arousal, and repetitive behaviour.

Journal article

Gentle teaching

Author:
CONBOY-HILL Suzanne
Journal article citation:
Nursing Times, 3.3.93, 1993, pp.62-64.
Publisher:
Nursing Times

Describes the use of the gentle teaching technique to change challenging or destructive behaviour in adults and children with learning disabilities.

Journal article

Mental handicap hospital: issues of primary and psychiatric care

Authors:
JAMES A., BOURAS N.
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap, 19(4), December 1991, pp.158-160.
Publisher:
British Institute of Mental Handicap

Describes a five year follow-up survey of severity of mental handicap, behavioural disturbance, psychotropic medication and psychiatric illness in residents of a mental handicap hospital. Levels of behavioural disturbance had dropped since the previous survey, and the vast majority of residents had no diagnosable psychiatric illness.

Journal article

Non-aversive and mildly aversive procedures for reducing problem behaviours in people with developmental disorders: a review

Authors:
LANCIONI Giulio E., HOOGEVEEN Frans
Journal article citation:
Mental Handicap Research, 3(2), 1990, pp.137-160.
Publisher:
BIMH Publications

During the last few years, great concern has been expressed about the use of aversive procedures for reducing deviant behaviours in people with developmental disorders. Given this situation, the role of non-aversive and mildly aversive procedures has become increasingly relevant. Reviews such procedures with regard to their outcomes, the characteristics of people treatment, and the deviant behaviours involved, based on studies published during the last 15 years.

Book

Needs and responses: services for adults with mental handicap who are mentally ill, who have behaviour problems or who offend

Author:
GREAT BRITAIN. Department of Health
Publisher:
Great Britain. Department of Health
Publication year:
1989
Pagination:
82p., bibliog.
Place of publication:
London

Overall service provision; identification and assessment of need; policy and provision; and manpower, skills and training aspects of service provision for this client group.

Journal article

The Frankish model of disability psychotherapy in practice: an integrative model

Author:
McINNIS Erica Elaine
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 10(1), 2016, pp.74-81.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: This paper focuses on the theory and practice of disability psychotherapy (DP) using the integrative Frankish model. This draws on the model’s use with a 28-year-old male with a mild intellectual disability (ID) who presented with a range of emotional and behavioural problems. Design/methodology/approach: A case study reporting on the practice of DP of psychodynamic orientation. Findings: Adaptations useful in providing DP with people with IDs and the type of issues which arise are reported. Research limitations/implications: DP is possible and beneficial in community settings. Limitations of a single case study include generalisability of findings. Originality/value: Existing papers focus on the model, development of the emotional development measuring tool and contextual issues. This case study provides novel information on the practice of DP, and analysis of manifestations of white supremacy (Ani, 1994) in psychotherapy with people with IDs. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The association between repetitive behaviours, impulsivity and hyperactivity in people with intellectual disability

Authors:
BURBIDGE C., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(12), December 2010, pp.1078-1092.
Publisher:
Wiley

There is a need for assessments of psychological difference and disorder in people who have more severe intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an informant-based questionnaire measure of hyperactivity and impulsivity for use in relation to people with all levels of intellectual disabilities. The additional aim was to evaluate the association between repetitive behaviour and hyperactivity and impulsivity to test the prediction that these phenomena should co-occur.  The Activity Questionnaire (TAQ) was developed for this study. Three sub-scales with high levels of face validity were supported by factor analysis of the scoring of 755 intellectually disabled participants on the TAQ items. These sub-scales mapped onto the constructs of Overactivity, Impulsivity and Impulsive Speech. Test–retest, inter-rater reliability and internal consistency were robust. TAQ scores and scores on the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for a sample of 136 participants with varying degrees of intellectual disabilities. The results showed that there were significant positive associations between overactivity and stereotyped behaviour , impulsivity and restricted preferences , and impulsive speech and repetitive speech . The article concludes that the TAQ is a reliable assessment of hyperactivity and impulsivity for people with intellectual disabilities with robust factor structure. The relationship between impulsivity and restricted preferences may result from a common cognitive impairment in inhibition, which may underpin these two classes of behaviour.

Journal article

The impact of borderline personality traits on challenging behaviour: implications for learning disabilities services

Authors:
DUNN Barnaby D., BOLTON Winifred
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Forensic Practice, 6(4), December 2004, pp.3-9.
Publisher:
Emerald

Describes how threats to stab people in a client with learning disabilities may have been inadvertently reinforced during detention in a medium secure unit by overlooking borderline personality traits. Formulating the case from the biopsychosocial model of borderline personality disorder, illustrates how an invalidating environment provided by learning disability services may have interacted with underlying difficulties in emotion regulation to reinforce challenging behaviour. Explaining threats to stab purely in terms of learning disability accidentally invalidated the client's emotional distress, so the only way he could convey how he was feeling was by escalating challenging behaviour. Risk management procedures also strengthened the client's belief that he was a dangerous person, and reinforced the challenging behaviour by gaining interpersonal attention. Highlights the need for learning disability services to be aware of how personality features contribute to learning disability presentations and to formulate from an interactive perspective.

Journal article

Prevalence of hearing impairment in a community population of adults with learning disability: access to audiology and impact on behaviour

Authors:
TIMEHIN C., TIMEHIN E.
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(3), September 2004, pp.128-132.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

There is a paucity of studies exploring the frequency of problem behaviours in people with learning disability and hearing impairment, described as 'double jeopardy' because the difficulties are compounded to be more than the sum of their parts. The study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of hearing impairment in a community population of adults with learning disability, investigate their access to audiology, and also collect information on the prevalence of problem behaviours and explore links between hearing impairment and use of hearing aids and problem behaviours. Prevalence was 9.2%; 70% had been seen by audiology services at some time but only 24% had ongoing assessments and hearing-aid maintenance; 62% had problem behaviours and 34% had self-injurious behaviour. The high prevalence of these compared with other studies suggests a need for further research. These findings also reveal that the hearing status of people with learning disability continues to be overlooked as the deafness often gets lost among their other problems.

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