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Journal article

That poor laddie cannae tell his thoughts fae his actions: a repy to Sturmey

Author:
LINDSAY William R.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.119-120.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The author argues that behavioural therapies have always employed cognitive techniques and produced cognitive change but have omitted to measure them. It is further argued that unobservable variables are germane to scientific advance. The author calls for higher standards of science in cognitive therapy studies.

Book

Helping the retarded: systematic behavioural approach

Authors:
PERKINS E.S., et al
Publisher:
British Institute of Mental Handicap
Publication year:
1980
Pagination:
v,105p.,illus.
Place of publication:
Kidderminster
Journal article Full text available online for free

Positive group psychotherapy modified for adults with intellectual disabilities

Author:
TOMASULO Daniel J
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 18(4), 2014, pp.337-350.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Mental health problems are more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. There is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and meaningful lives with improved relationships. This article focuses on a review of evidence for interactive behavioural therapy, a widely used model of group psychotherapy for people with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems, and reviews the modifications drawn from the field of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy being incorporated into the model. A sample of a modified positive intervention, the virtual gratitude visit, is explained and suggestions for future research are given. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Dialectical behaviour therapy for special populations: treatment with adolescents and their caregivers

Authors:
CHARLTON Margaret, DYKSTRA Eric J.
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 5(5), 2011, pp.6-14.
Publisher:
Emerald

The authors begin by discussing the adaptations that need to be made to dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) when working with populations who have both intellectual disabilities and mental illnesses. They go on to report the preliminary findings of a pilot study conducted with adolescent clients in a day treatment program in Colorado. This was designed to determine the effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy for special populations (DBT-SP). The study, which involved 19 students, used all three components of DBT, in addition to the normal milieu management techniques. Clients received DBT-SP focused individual therapy, skills training groups using the DBT-SP skills training manual, and the whole treatment team staff participated in a DBT-SP supervision/consultation group. Data were collected through observations of client behaviour by staff, client outcome when leaving the program, and daily diary card information. The authors note that, as this was a pilot study, there are many limitations to the data. However they conclude that thus far, the data are suggestive, but not conclusive, regarding the effectiveness of DBT-SP.

Journal article

Solution-focused brief therapy with persons with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
ROEDEN John M., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 6(4), December 2009, pp.253-259.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) is a short-term, goal-focused, and client-directed therapeutic approach that helps the client to generate solutions rather than dwell on problems. SFBT has rarely been used with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). The authors discuss how this relatively new form of therapy in an adapted form can be made suitable for clients with ID. The assumptions of this therapeutic approach, the types of problems and settings addressed by SFBT and a description of the interventions used are considered. Indications and contraindications for SFBT and empirical data on the effectiveness of the therapy are discussed with regard to clients with or without ID. Tailoring SFBT to clients with ID can be done by using simple language, modified interventions and inserting other adaptations into the therapy process. Research is needed to demonstrate whether SFBT if effective with this target group can and to what extent it is valued by clients and their carers.

Journal article

Practitioner consensus in the use of cognitive behaviour therapy for individuals with a learning disability

Authors:
HADDOCK Katie, JONES Robert S.P.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 10(3), September 2006, pp.221-230.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been acknowledged as one of the most successful treatments for mental health problems. However, only a small number of practitioners engage in CBT with people with learning disabilities. A group of eight clinical psychologists who currently use CBT with this population gave details about their work in an attempt to gain a consensus on how to adapt CBT. The collective experiences of a wider group of experts produced a wealth of knowledge and suggestions to promote the use of CBT with this client group. Results suggested that although CBT needs to be creatively delivered, it does not necessarily need extensive adaptation.

Journal article

The need for credible evidence: comments 'On some recent claims for efficacy of cognitive therapy for people with intellectual disabilities'

Author:
EMERSON Eric
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.121-123.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Sturmey (2005)argues that the evidence base underlying approaches to intervention based on applied behavioural analysis (ABA) are significantly stronger than that underlying approaches to intervention based on cognitive therapy. He concludes that 'the ethical imperative of beneficence requires that people, including people with ID, receive known effective treatments. Those effective treatments are based on ABA'. In this commentary, the author argues that Sturmey's selection of evidence to support the central argument (the superiority of ABA) involves some highly contestable assumptions and that evidence of the effectiveness of ABA falls far short of that required for evidence-based policy and practice.

Journal article

Cognitive-behavioural intervention for people with intellectual disability and anxiety disorders

Authors:
DAGHAN Dave, JAHODA Andrew
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.91-97.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Distinct cognitive models and treatments have been developed for people without intellectual disability with a wide range of anxiety disorders. However, these have not been reported as applied to people with intellectual disabilities. In fact, much of the cognitive therapy literature for people with intellectual disabilities does not distinguish between different presentations of anxiety. The authors take the particular example of social phobia and describe the specific cognitive model and associated intervention developed for people without intellectual disabilities. They then consider research on the social context of people with intellectual disability and research on developmental factors predictive of anxiety and make suggestions for adaptation of treatment approaches. It is suggested that such an approach would be useful to apply to other anxiety presentations and to identify areas for further clinical and research development.

Journal article

Cognitive therapy abilities in people with learning disabilities

Authors:
SAMS Kathryn, COLLINS Suzanne, REYNOLDS Shirley
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.25-33.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This article examines the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). It is hypothesized that cognitive therapy task performance would be significantly correlated with IQ and receptive vocabulary, and that providing a visual cue would improve performance. Fifty-nine people with learning disabilities were assessed on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), the British Picture Vocabulary Scale-II (BPVS-II), a test of emotion recognition and a task requiring participants to discriminate among thoughts, feelings and behaviours. In the discrimination task, participants were randomly assigned to a visual cue condition or a no-cue condition. There was considerable variability in performance. Emotion recognition was significantly associated with receptive vocabulary, and discriminating among thoughts, feelings and behaviours was significantly associated with vocabulary and IQ. There was no effect of the cue on the discrimination task. People with learning disabilities with higher IQs and good receptive vocabulary were more likely to be able to identify different emotions and to discriminate among thoughts, feelings and behaviours. This implies that they may more easily understand the cognitive model. Structured ways of simplifying the concepts used in cognitive therapy and methods of socialization and education in the cognitive model are required to aid participation of people with learning disabilities.

Journal article

On some recent claims for the efficacy of cognitive therapy for people with intellectual disabilities

Author:
STURMEY Peter
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), March 2006, pp.109-117.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Recently, many authors have made claims for the effectiveness of cognitive therapy for treating people with intellectual disabilities. During this debate, applied behaviour analysis has been misrepresented by incorrectly labelling behavioural as cognitive techniques, repeated misrepresentations of behaviourism and attributing the efficacy of treatment packages to cognitive components of undemonstrated efficacy when it is more parsimonious to attribute efficacy to behavioural elements of known efficacy. This article aims to document and correct these errors.

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