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Journal article

Disposable dispositions: reflections upon the work of Iris Marion Young in relation to the social oppression of autistic people

Author:
MILTON Damian E.M.
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 31(10), 2016, pp.1403-1407.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

This brief commentary piece looks to apply the theories of Iris Marion Young to the social position and oppression of autistic people, as previously theorised by Milton. The concepts of ‘Asymmetrical symmetry’ and the ‘Five faces of oppression’ are explored in this regard. The article concludes by arguing that autistic people, particularly those who have significant intellectual impairments, can be socially marginalised to the extent of occupying the social position of ‘non-human’ with the staggering consequences for social well-being that this implies. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Gender disorders in learning disability: a systematic review

Authors:
WOOD Ellena, HALDER Neel
Journal article citation:
Tizard Learning Disability Review, 19(4), 2014, pp.158-165.
Publisher:
Emerald

This study systematically reviewed all the published papers about individuals with both a learning disability and/or autistic spectrum disorder and a gender disorder. The review focused on aetiology, treatment and management. The databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PYSCHINFO, CINAHL, HBE, HMIC, AMED and BMI. English language papers from 1980 onwards were included as this was the year of the introduction of GID to the ICD-10. Gender disorders were taken to include the following: gender identity disorder (GID), transsexualism, cross-dressing, transvestitism or a gender-related sexual disorder. In total, 16 papers described 43 individuals meeting the inclusion criteria. There was a dearth of guidance on appropriate treatment or management. This review points towards the need for more research needed in this area. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Patterns of time processing ability in children with and without developmental disabilities

Authors:
JANESLATT Gunnel, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(3), May 2010, pp.250-262.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Children with developmental disabilities, such as intellectual disability or autism, are often reported to have problems in understanding and managing time. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are different patterns in time processing ability in children with disabilities and typically developing children. It also investigated whether the problems described are diagnosis specific or reflect differences in age. The 3 subcategories of time processing ability, time perception, time orientation, and time management, were all investigated. Using a cross-sectional design, this study investigated if there were different patterns of time processing ability in 5- to 10-year-old children, 77 of which had disabilities and 89 of which did not. Altogether, 5 different clusters of levels of time processing ability were identified. The results indicated that the patterns of time processing ability mainly follow the chronological age of children without disabilities. Daily time management (as estimated by the parents) and children's self-rated autonomy differed between clusters and was related to time processing ability. The article concludes that the level of time processing ability seems to be a more valid overall base than the type of diagnosis for the planning of interventions in daily time management.

Journal article

Autism spectrum disorders in genetic syndromes: implications for diagnosis, intervention and understanding the wider autism spectrum disorder population

Authors:
MOSS J., HOWLIN P.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(10), October 2009, pp.852-873.
Publisher:
Wiley

There is growing interest in the association between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), or ASD-related phenomenology, and a number genetically linked conditions. This systematic review examines the possibility of such an association in the following syndrome groups; Fragile X, Rett, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Down, Angelman, CHARGE, and Phenylketonuria. Special consideration is given to the role of intellectual disability (ID) in assessing the association. The first section looks specifically at the possible associations while the second section focuses on the clinical implications in terms of diagnosis and intervention, and the implication for conceptual and theoretical frameworks. Formal diagnostic assessments suggest an association between ASD and specific syndrome groups but detailed investigation reveals subtle but qualitative differences in the presentation of ASD-like phenomenology in particular groups. The degree of ID of the individual appears to play a part in the development and presentation of ASD-like characteristics but cannot solely account for the heightened prevalence of ASD characteristics in some specific syndromes. The authors suggest that caution is needed in interpreting the significance of superficial similarities between ASD and the behavioural phenotypes of certain genetically determined syndromes. However, recognition of ASD-like characteristics in individuals with genetic syndromes is crucial in ensuring that individuals receive appropriate support.

Book

Drama scripts for people with special needs

Author:
VICKERS Sheree
Publisher:
Speechmark
Publication year:
2005
Pagination:
126p.
Place of publication:
Bicester

Drama in a teaching or group situation  requires the confidence to speak in character and the time to develop a role. This book solves this problem by providing the words to speak, an established well-worked lesson plan to use,  and an easy format to follow for multiple adaptations and future dramas.  It contains scripts and drama-workshop breakdowns designed especially for people with special needs, including those with Learning Difficulties or Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Each script format and workshop plan has been fully worked with groups of varying ages and abilities and includes valuable notes of experience - documenting lessons where the unexpected happened and how it was handled.

Journal article

Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder

Authors:
HIRVIKOSKI Tatja, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(3), 2016, pp.232-238.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Background: Mortality has been suggested to be increased in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aims: To examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality in ASD, as well as investigate moderating role of gender and intellectual ability. Method: Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for a population-based cohort of ASD probands (n = 27 122, diagnosed between 1987 and 2009) compared with gender-, age- and county of residence-matched controls (n = 2 672 185). Results: During the observed period, 24 358 (0.91%) individuals in the general population died, whereas the corresponding figure for individuals with ASD was 706 (2.60%; OR = 2.56; 95% CI 2.38–2.76). Cause-specific analyses showed elevated mortality in ASD for almost all analysed diagnostic categories. Mortality and patterns for cause-specific mortality were partly moderated by gender and general intellectual ability. Conclusions: Premature mortality was markedly increased in ASD owing to a multitude of medical conditions. (Publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

Green light toolkit 2013: a guide to auditing and improving your mental health services so that it is effective in supporting people with autism and learning disabilities

Author:
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TEAM FOR INCLUSION
Publisher:
National Development Team for Inclusion
Publication year:
2013
Pagination:
76
Place of publication:
Bath

An earlier report by NDTi, ‘Reasonably adjusted’ (2012) described the reasonable adjustments mental health services were already putting in place for people with learning disabilities and people with autism. The NHS Confederation, supported by the Department of Health, commissioned the NDTi to develop and produce materials to help services review their own quality and share and replicate good practice. These are published as the Green Light Toolkit 2013, which comprise practical new materials designed to help improve the quality of mental health services for adults with learning disabilities and/or autism. The toolkit includes an audit framework to support reviews; an easy-read version of the audit framework and toolkit; and examples. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Continuity, commitment and context: adult siblings of people with autism plus learning disability

Authors:
TOZER Rosemary, ATKIN Karl, WENHAM Aniela
Journal article citation:
Health and Social Care in the Community, 21(5), 2013, p.480–488.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Sibling relationships are usually lifelong and reciprocal. They can assume particular significance when a brother or sister has a learning disability. Until recently, adult siblings of people with disabilities such as severe autism have been ignored by policy, practice and research. This qualitative study contributes to an emerging literature by exploring how adult siblings, who have a brother or sister with autism (plus learning disability) and living in England, give meaning to their family (and caring) relationships and engage with service delivery. We spoke to 21 adult siblings using semi-structured interviews and met with 12 of their siblings with autism. This analysis, using a broad narrative approach, demonstrates the continuity of the sibling relationship and an enduring personalised commitment. The nature of this relationship, however, is sensitive to context. How non-disabled adult siblings relate to their childhood experience is fundamental when making sense of this, as is their need to fulfil other social and family obligations, alongside their ‘sense of duty’ to support their disabled brother or sister. Sibling experience was further mediated by negotiating their ‘perceived invisibility’ in social care policy and practice. Our work concludes that by understanding the way relationships between siblings have developed over time, adult siblings’ contribution to the lives of their brother or sister with autism can be better supported for the benefit of both parties. Such an approach would support current policy developments. (Publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

A place in society: the importance of planning for life for people with autistic spectrum disorders

Author:
NATIONAL AUTISTIC SOCIETY
Publisher:
National Autistic Society
Publication year:
2004
Pagination:
10p.
Place of publication:
London

In order to highlight the lifelong difficulties experienced by people with autism spectrum disorders and those who care for them, the National Autistic Society chose the theme of 'planning for life' for Autism Awareness Week 2004. This report brings together evidence on current outcomes for people with autism spectrum disorders, covering diagnosis, school exclusions, living at home, employment, people with learning disabilities and the criminal justice system, advocacy and carers. It includes examples from people who have experienced significant difficulties in their everyday lives that could have been avoided with effective multi-agency planning. It discusses policy developments, including transition planning and personal life plans, and sets out recommendations regarding young people, adult services, and general issues.

Book Full text available online for free

'Fulfilling and rewarding lives': the strategy for adults with autism in England (2010)

Author:
GREAT BRITAIN. Department of Health
Publisher:
Great Britain. Department of Health
Publication year:
2010
Pagination:
74p.
Place of publication:
London

Published on 3 March 2010, the first autism strategy for England sets out a clear framework for all mainstream services across the public sector to work together for adults with autism. Autism is a lifelong developmental disability and while some people with an autistic spectrum condition (ASC) can live relatively independently, others will have high dependency needs requiring a lifetime of specialist care.  There are approximately 400,000 adults with ASC in England, around half of whom also have a learning disability. Actions in the autism strategy include a new National Autism Programme Board to lead change in public services set out in the strategy; a programme to develop training with health and social care professional bodies; autism awareness training for all Job Centre Disability Employment Advisers; guidance on making public services accessible for adults with autism, like improving buildings, public transport and communication; and a clear, consistent pathway for diagnosis

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