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Journal article

Personality disorder and intellectual disability: concept and prevalence

Author:
ANDERSEN Hilde Katrine
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 2015, pp.163-173.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The range of prevalence of personality disorder (PD) found in people with intellectual disability (ID) has been reported as vast, and has included data from dissimilar settings. The purpose of this paper is to review the reported prevalence of PD in the general population of people with ID, and to consider how different and changing ideas about PD have affected these rates. Design/methodology/approach: Cross-sectional studies of the prevalence of PD in people with ID were identified. The quality of the studies was considered, along with how cases of PD were identified. Findings: Six studies were included. The reported prevalence of PD in people known to have ID ranged from 0.7 to 35 per cent. Possible reasons for this wide range included different views of PD and methods of assessment. Research limitations/implications: The wide range of findings suggests that methodological differences are significant. Consideration to how clinicians should respond to the overlap of impairment between ID and PD may improve the conceptual clarity of PD, informing future epidemiological research. Originality/value: This review was limited to studies of samples likely to be representative of the general ID population. The range of prevalence estimates was narrower than previously reported, and more likely to reflect the true prevalence rate of PD amongst people who have ID. Consideration was also given to how different ideas of PD led to different methods and may have contributed to variance in the results. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Down syndrome: systematic review of the prevalence and nature of presentation of unipolar depression

Authors:
WALTON Catherine, KERR Mike
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 2015, pp.151-162.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence and nature of presentation of unipolar depression in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Design/methodology/approach: The PRISMA (2009) checklist for systematic review was followed where possible. Findings: Eight studies were included in the qualitative synthesis from a total of 634 records identified. The quality of the studies was then assessed: the studies all scored either 5 or 6 out of 6. The incidence of depression ranged between studies from 5 to 13 per cent. It was found that depression is more common in DS than the general intellectual disability population; this on a background of mental ill health of all causes being less common in DS. It was suggested that, excluding organic disorders, depression is the most common psychiatric problem in DS. In terms of the nature of depression, the evidence was less clear. Various “vegetative” and biological symptoms were observed, with no fixed pattern. There was evidence for withdrawal symptoms and psychosis. Research limitations/implications: The small number of studies included in this review, and their heterogeneity, highlights the need for further original research in this field. Practical implications: - An increased awareness of the frequency of depression in individuals with DS will aid in a timely diagnosis, therefore reduce psychiatric morbidity. Clinicians should be aware of the varied presentation, with no clear clinical picture, in order to maintain a high index of suspicion in an individual presenting with “atypical” symptoms. Originality/value This review has provided preliminary evidence that depression may be the most commonly experienced psychiatric disorder in DS. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

'It's my life' autonomy and people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
BJORNSDOTTIR Kristin, STEFANSDOTTIR Guorun V., STEFANSDOTTIR Astriour
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), 2015, pp.5-21.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, the authors examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is, homes and daily activities. The article demonstrates how practices have improved with time and seem less paternalistic. However, the article also demonstrates that the assistance people with intellectual disabilities receive in their homes often has institutional qualities, and they are often met with belittling perspectives from staff and family members. Furthermore, many did not have access to important information needed to develop individual autonomy and independence, including making their own choices. The research findings suggest that people with intellectual disabilities can with appropriate support develop individual autonomy and make their own choices. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

A preliminary study into the relationship between emotional perception ability and challenging behaviour in adults with an intellectual disability

Author:
DAVIES Bronwen
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 18(4), 2014, pp.382-392.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

To explore the relationships between challenging behaviour and emotional perception in a population of adults with intellectual disabilities, cross-sectional data were collected from 96 people with intellectual disabilities and 95 carers. The service user participants completed the Emotional Perception Questionnaire, whilst carers completed the Checklist for Challenging Behaviour. Correlational analyses were employed to analyse relationships between the variables. A post hoc between-group analysis was conducted to compare the emotional recognition abilities of people with high-frequency challenging behaviour with those with low-frequency challenging behaviour. Significant negative associations were found between emotional perception and challenging behaviour frequency and management difficulty. Significant differences in emotional perception abilities were found between people with high frequency and those with low-frequency challenging behaviours. The study suggests that emotional perception is important in understanding challenging behaviour. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Vision deficits in adults with Down Syndrome

Authors:
KRINSKY-McHALE Sharon J., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(3), 2014, pp.247-263.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: In individuals with Down syndrome, virtually all structures of the eye have some abnormality, which likely diminishes vision. The examined basic vision functions in adults with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods: Participants completed a battery of psychophysical tests that probed a comprehensive array of visual functions. The performance of adults with Down syndrome was compared with younger and older adults without intellectual disability. Results: Adults with Down syndrome had significant vision deficits, reduced sensitivity across spatial frequencies and temporal modulation rates, reduced stereopsis, impaired vernier acuity and anomalies in colour discrimination. The pattern of deficits observed was similar to those seen by researchers examining adults with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a common mechanism may be responsible for the pattern of deficits observed, possibly the presence of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology in the visual association cortex. We also showed that individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disability are capable of participating in studies employing state-of-the-art psychophysical procedures. This has wider implications in terms of their ability to participate in research that use similar techniques. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Barriers to sexual health provision for people with intellectual disability: a disability service provider and clinician perspective

Authors:
THOMPSON Vanessa R., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(2), 2014, pp.137-146.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Background: Sexual health remains one of the most overlooked areas of life for people with intellectual disability. In recent years there has been an increasing expectation that this issue will be addressed by disability service providers. In this paper the authors examine the barriers to sexual health provision of people with intellectual disability as experienced by disability service providers and clinicians. Method: This research uses a constructionist grounded theory approach. It was conducted in 2 phases using semistructured qualitative interviews to collect data from disability service managers and clinicians working with people with intellectual disability in New South Wales, Australia. Findings and Discussion: Key themes within the interviews – including funding shortages and a lack of policy guidelines – were identified as significant administrative barriers to sexual health provision. Myths about the sexual health of people with intellectual disability, family attitudes, and lack of staff training were also identified as barriers. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Measuring the emotional development of adults with ID

Author:
FRANKISH Pat
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 7(5), 2013, pp.272-276.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: This paper demonstrates that it is both possible and useful to measure the emotional developmental stage of people with intellectual disability. Design/methodology/approach: A tool was designed, based on a stage theory of development and tested for reliability and validity. Findings: The tool was found to be both reliable and valid. Originality/value: This is new work with no predecessor. (Publisher abstract)

Book Full text available online for free

The estimated prevalence of visual impairment among people with learning disabilities in the UK

Authors:
EMERSON Eric, ROBERTSON Janet
Publisher:
Public Health England
Publication year:
2011
Pagination:
35p.
Place of publication:
London

It has been known for some time that visual impairments are more common among people with learning disabilities, especially people with more severe learning disabilities, and that the presence of visual impairments can significantly impair the independence and quality of life of people with learning disabilities. The aim of this report is to estimate how many people with learning disabilities in the UK are likely to have visual impairments. The report suggests that, at present, approximately 50,000 people with learning disabilities who are known to services in the UK have visual impairment. An additional 15,000 are blind. Whilst most children with learning disabilities are known to services, not all adults with learning disabilities are known to adult health or social care learning disabilities services – it is estimated that there may be an additional 44,000 adults with learning disabilities and visual impairment and 11,000 with learning disabilities and blindness. It is estimated that all of these figures will rise by approximately 0.5% each year over the next two decades.

Journal article

Challenging behaviour and associated risk factors: an overview (part I)

Authors:
KORITSAS Stella, IACONO Teresa
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 6(4), 2012, pp.199-214.
Publisher:
Emerald

This review, the first in a two-part series, explores challenging behaviour in adults, its prevalence, risk factors and causes. It aims to provide an overview of prevalence studies and explore the various risk factors that have been associated with challenging behaviour. The authors also seek to explore methodological differences across studies that may contribute to the prevalence variations reported in the literature. The article summarises the findings from frequently cited prevalence studies as well as more recent studies. The prevalence of challenging behaviour reported in the literature has varied due to methodological differences across studies. Despite this, the best estimate is believed to be from 15 to 17.5 per cent. A range of factors have been associated with challenging behaviour and include gender, age, severity of disability and residential setting.

Book Full text available online for free

Estimating the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in adults: extending the 2007 adult psychiatric morbidity survey

Authors:
BRUGHA T., et al
Publisher:
NHS Information Centre
Publication year:
2012
Pagination:
31p.
Place of publication:
London

This report extends the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The original data has been combined with data from a new study of the prevalence of autism among adults with learning disabilities living in private households and communal care establishments in Leicestershire, Lambeth and Sheffield. For this latter study, 290 adults were recruited resulting in 83 interviews with those living in private households. Sixty four per cent of communal care establishments approached took part in the study leading to 207 interviews. The overall prevalence of autism from the combined data was 1.1 per cent. The prevalence of autism was higher in men (2.0 per cent) than women (0.3 per cent). The learning disability study demonstrated that the prevalence of autism increased with greater severity of learning disability/lower verbal IQ. Sex differences were less marked in adults with learning disabilities compared with the general population. The estimated prevalence of autism changed very little when the data were re-analysed to take into account that the prevalence of autism might be higher or lower in other settings, such as prisons. This study has demonstrated that autism is common among people with a learning disability. Taking this into account gives an estimated overall prevalence of autism in England of 1.1 per cent; compared with a previous estimate of 1.0 per cent in the APMS (2007).

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