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Journal article

Disposable dispositions: reflections upon the work of Iris Marion Young in relation to the social oppression of autistic people

Author:
MILTON Damian E.M.
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 31(10), 2016, pp.1403-1407.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

This brief commentary piece looks to apply the theories of Iris Marion Young to the social position and oppression of autistic people, as previously theorised by Milton. The concepts of ‘Asymmetrical symmetry’ and the ‘Five faces of oppression’ are explored in this regard. The article concludes by arguing that autistic people, particularly those who have significant intellectual impairments, can be socially marginalised to the extent of occupying the social position of ‘non-human’ with the staggering consequences for social well-being that this implies. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

A critical comparison of welfare states and their relevance to people with an intellectual disability

Authors:
de CHENU Linda, DAEHLEN Dag, TAH Jude
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 20(4), 2016, pp.397-415.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

This article compares the welfare services for adults with an intellectual disability in three European countries: England, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the comparison is to develop an understanding of the welfare state and institutional contexts of the country-specific policies and to develop a critical analysis through a comparative method based on selected secondary literature. Typological frameworks of European welfare states are applied as analytic frameworks to enable comparison between the countries. It is argued that there are international policy developments but these are shaped at a national level by different types of welfare states and histories. Through a comparison of similarities and differences, the article suggests that international policy ideas that impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities are mediated by different types of welfare states and institutions.

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Registering the right support: CQC's policy on registration and variations to registration for providers supporting people with learning disabilities

Author:
CARE QUALITY COMMISSION
Publisher:
Care Quality Commission
Publication year:
2016
Pagination:
26
Place of publication:
London

This policy statement provides guidance on handling new applicants for registration and applications to vary registration from providers of services for people with learning disabilities. It aims to guide registration managers and inspectors in their assessments of providers of services for people with learning disabilities, and to help them decide whether to grant or refuse registration applications, or applications to make variations to registration. The statement covers the opening a new specialist assessment and treatment unit or hospital; the opening a new care home or location for supported living; and new applications for registration. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Health and social care practitioners’ experiences of assessing mental capacity in a community learning disability team

Authors:
RATCLIFF Daniel, CHAPMAN Melanie
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44 (4), 2016, pp.329-336.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: The study explored experiences of health and social care practitioners within a community learning disability team in undertaking mental capacity assessments with people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: Eight practitioners were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: The information gained was analysed using thematic network analysis. Twelve basic themes emerged which fit into five organising themes labelled: ‘systemic barriers to assessment’; ‘capacity assessing as a process’; ‘person-specific challenges’; ‘protective practices’; and ‘protection of a fundamental human right’. A global theme, ‘freedom of action versus restrictions on action’, was identified. Conclusions: The themes highlighted that there were a range of organisational, systemic and person-specific factors that impacted on the perceived quality of and assessors’ confidence in their assessments of mental capacity. Furthermore, these factors appeared to create a range of tensions for assessors increasing the likelihood of cognitive dissonance. Practice implications surround maintaining knowledge, ensuring adequate skills in the practical application of knowledge and reducing organisational barriers. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

From framework to practice: person-directed planning in the real world

Authors:
MARTIN Lynn, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 29(6), 2016, pp.552-565.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: Person-directed planning (PDP) is an approach to planning supports that aims to redistribute power from the service system to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and natural supports, improve relationships and build community. To do this, the right people with the right attitudes engaging in the right actions are needed. This paper examines how key elements in PDP contribute to successes in planning. Materials/Methods: Researchers worked with three planning teams from different community service agencies using participatory action research techniques (i.e. free list and pile sort, Socratic wheel, whys/hows exercise). Results: Most key elements of PDP were relevant to each team. Perceptions of which had most contributed to planning successes differed. Conclusions: The various elements of PDP are used by and useful to planning teams, although some may be more relevant to some successes than others because of specific goals, or the person's strengths and needs. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Project SEARCH UK: evaluating its employment outcomes

Author:
KAEHNE Axel
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 29(6), 2016, pp.519-530.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The evaluation obtained data from all sites operational in the UK at the time of evaluation (n = 17) and analysed employment outcomes. Results: Data were available for 315 young people (n = 315) in the programme and pay and other employment related data were available for a subsample. The results of the analysis suggest that Project SEARCH achieves on average employment rates of around 50 per cent. Conclusion: Project SEARCH UK represents a valuable addition to the supported employment provision in the UK. Its unique model should inform discussions around best practice in supported employment. Implications for other supported employment programmes are discussed. (Publisher abstract)

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Mapping the employability landscape for people with learning disabilities in Scotland

Authors:
McTIER Alex, et al
Publisher:
Scottish Commission for Learning Disability
Publication year:
2016
Pagination:
85
Place of publication:
Glasgow

This report maps the employability landscape for people with learning disabilities in Scotland and seeks to better understand the scale and effectiveness of employability support. The report finds that the current landscape is complex, fragmented and seemingly under-resourced given the very low employment rate of adults with a learning disability. The employment rate for working adults with a learning disability is in the range of 7% to 25%, and there could be as many as 125,000- 150,000 out-of-work adults with a learning disability. Very small numbers of people with a learning disability appear to be engaged in mainstream employability programmes while supported employment services are estimated to have supported up to 2,000 people in 2014/15. The number of people with a learning disability enrolled in Scotland’s colleges is unclear, but it is estimated they have a 16 hours/job outcome rate of 12%. Specialist employability organisations appear to have an overall 16 hours/week job outcome rate of 14% and a cost per 16 hours/week job outcome of £17,200. Project SEARCH programmes achieve higher employment outcome rates with a 16 hours/week job outcome rate of 61% but with current capacity in Scotland of only 100-150 people per annum. The report makes a series of specific recommendations for a variety of stakeholders. They include the need to: overcome the low expectations held by parents, schools, colleges and employers; gather data more effectively, investing funding where people with a learning disability in Scotland secure both employment and support to develop in that job, and; recruit and train job coaches that can support people with a learning disability into employment and throughout their careers. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

‘I don't feel trapped anymore…I feel like a bird’: people with learning disabilities' experience of psychological therapy

Authors:
LEWIS Nicola, LEWIS Karin, DAVIES Bronwen
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 29(5), 2016, pp.445-454.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: This current research was developed in response to a clinical psychology service recognising the need to evaluate their psychological service for and, as part of this evaluation, the importance of consulting with service users about their experience of psychological therapies. Methods: Six service users with a learning disability were interviewed about their experience of individual psychological therapy. The interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Themes were generated from the interviews which highlighted both positive and negative feedback on the psychological therapy process. The feedback covered areas such as access to therapy, feelings about therapy, preparing for therapy, skill development and collaborative working, accessibility and making therapy fun, challenges to confidentiality, positive feelings towards the therapist, aspects of the therapeutic relationship, therapy being challenging but helpful, and positive outcomes. Conclusions: These results have contributed to the evidence base that people with a learning disability are able to meaningfully engage in research and provide essential feedback on the services that they receive. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a mental capacity assessment tool for patients with a learning disability

Authors:
EDGE Daniel, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(3), 2016, p.240–246.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Objective: To determine the psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with a learning disability and examine it's utility for conducting mental capacity assessment. Method: This study was a cross-sectional, instrument validation study in an inpatient hospital setting, located in the East of England. The sample consisted of two groups: (i) 31 consecutively admitted hospital patients and (ii) 10 multidisciplinary team members who served as a comparison group. The MoCA, a 12-item screen for mild cognitive impairment and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), were used in this study. Item analysis was conducted by comparing item endorsement for all participants that had a learning disability utilising Difficulty and Discrimination Indices for each item on the MoCA. The authors examined the internal consistency of a revised scale derived from item analysis and used a one-way ANOVA to determine concurrent validity by comparing scores between two patient subgroups and the comparison group. Results: A 7-item scale, ‘MoCA-LD’ (alpha coefficient = 0.82) emerged from item analysis. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between MoCA-LD and DEX (Pearson correlation = −0.66, P < 0.01). As expected, participants in the borderline category scored higher on MoCA-LD than those with mild learning disability, as did those with no learning disability (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The MoCA-LD has the potential to be a useful tool for mental capacity assessment in patients with a learning disability. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Examples of individual supported living for adults with intellectual disability

Authors:
COCKS Errol, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 20(2), 2016, pp.100-108.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Background: This article provides a qualitative account of four models of support for adults with intellectual disability in individual supported living (ISL) arrangements. Materials and Methods: Completion of the first 50 evaluations of 150 arrangements for the third phase of the ISL project provided the examples. Results: Four approaches are described: living alone, co-residency, relationship and host family. Within each type, wide variations occur particularly based on security of tenure, formal and informal support and management variations. Conclusion: Fifty evaluations so far illustrated a wide range of approaches to ISL, providing evidence of the critical importance of the formal and informal support environment and reinforcing the contention that ISL is appropriate for people with high support needs. (Publisher abstract)

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