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Journal article

To be Frank

Author:
HARDIMAN Becky
Journal article citation:
Learning Disability Today, 15(4), July/August 2015, pp.12-13.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

This article provides an overview of Fragile X Syndrome, the most common inherited cause of learning disabilities. It looks at some of the key features of the condition and how it effects thinking, learning and behaviour. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Care staff perceptions of choking incidents: what details are reported?

Authors:
GUTHRIE Susan, LECKO Caroline, RODDAM Hazel
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 28(2), 2015, pp.121-132.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: Following a series of fatal choking incidents in one UK specialist service, this study evaluated the detail included in incident reporting. This study compared the enhanced reporting system in the specialist service with the national reporting and learning system. Methods: Eligible reports were selected from a national organisation and a specialist service using search terms relevant to adults with intellectual disability and/or mental ill health. Qualitative analysis was completed with comparison of themes identified in both sets of reports. Findings: The numbers of choking incidents identified in national reports suggest under-reporting compared with the specialist service and varying levels of severity. Themes included trends in timing, care setting and food textures as perceived by staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates paucity of detail in reporting in systems without additional question prompts. Adding these questions requires staff to include greater detail which enables learning and risk mitigation to take place. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Home sharing and people with intellectual disabilities: a qualitative exploration

Authors:
HOLE Rachelle, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 12(4), 2015, pp.279-287.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Home sharing is a fast-growing residential option in British Columbia (BC), Canada; yet little empirical research exists specific to home sharing. In BC, home sharing is defined as a living situation when one or more adults with an intellectual disability share a home with another person or unrelated family who is paid to provide residential and, at times, additional support as needed. The authors report the findings of a qualitative study exploring home sharing and the factors that contribute to quality home sharing. Guided by interpretive description, a qualitative method, individual interviews exploring participants’ experiences of home sharing were conducted with 68 individuals (22 individuals with ID, 33 home share providers, and 13 family members). Constant comparison was used to analyse the data. Key factors to perceived instances of successful home sharing included (1) finding a good match between the individual with ID and the provider, (2) engaging in proactive planning, (3) ensuring effective supports to maintain the sustainability of the home share that promotes balancing the independence of and support for the individual, and (4) being attuned to the relational dynamics among all stakeholders. The findings have implications for implementing policies and practices pertaining home sharing. The authors conclude that emphasis should be put on flexible and appropriate residential supports that address the person's changing needs where the home share relationship facilitates the individual's healthy lifestyle, well-being, independence, valued social roles, and social inclusion. Additionally, a clearly articulated system of monitoring to ensure safety should be part of all home share arrangements subject to the wishes of the individual with ID. (Publisher abstract)

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NHS learning disability employment: tools and guidance

Authors:
NHS EMPLOYERS, NHS ENGLAND
Publisher:
NHS Employers
Publication year:
2015
Pagination:
29
Place of publication:
Leeds

Practical steps and an overview of available tools designed to encourage employment for people with learning disabilities in NHS organisations. The aim of these tools and guidance is to raise awareness, highlight good practice and break down some of the barriers that both employers and potential employees may face, helping create a culture which welcomes people with learning disabilities. This guidance is structured around five building blocks, taking potential employers and managers through the process of recruiting and employing someone with a learning disability. The building blocks are: getting started; being an accessible employer; identifying real jobs; advertising and recruitment; and employment. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

Learning disabilities: reducing inequalities

Author:
MARSHALL-TATE Karina
Journal article citation:
Nursing Times, 111(49), 2015, pp.12-13.
Publisher:
Nursing Times

Nurses without a learning disability qualification can feel unsure of how best to care for patients with a learning disability. This article outlines five small changes that nurses can make to improve healthcare and reduce avoidable, premature deaths of people with learning disabilities. These are: identifying people with learning disabilities, anticipating their needs and making adjustments; diagnosing and treating illness quickly; coordinating care; adhering to the Mental Capacity Act 2005, and listening to people with learning disabilities and their families. A case study shows how small changes can improve care. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

The identities and social roles of people with an intellectual disability: challenging dominant cultural worldviews, values and mythologies

Authors:
DOROZENKO Kate P., ROBERTS Lynne D., BISHOP Brian J.
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 30(9), 2015, pp.1345-1364.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

Intellectual disability is commonly conceptualised as stigmatised identity with which one has to live. However, within the literature the notion of a damaged identity is contested. The aim of this research was to explore the social construction of intellectual disability, with an emphasis on the identities and social roles of people with an intellectual disability. Informed by a contextualist perspective, this research was conducted within a participatory framework. The co-researchers involved in this research were 18 members of an advocacy agency. Photovoice and conversational interviewing were used to collect data and causal layered analysis was used to deconstruct the data. Analysis of the interactions that emerged across the causal layers revealed a complex dynamic of worldviews which served to construct people with an intellectual disability as incompetent, inherently different and not quite human. For genuine, transformative change to occur, developing an awareness and understanding of social processes, such as dehumanisation, is crucial. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Is the Risk Matrix 2000 applicable to intellectually disabled sex offenders?

Authors:
PRYBODA Jennifer, TULLY Ruth J., BROWNE Kevin D.
Journal article citation:
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25(Part A), 2015, pp.184-190.
Publisher:
Elsevier

Background: Sex offender risk assessment is complex, especially when this concerns intellectually disabled sex offenders (IDSOs). This subgroup of sex offenders require specific attention in relation to risk assessment, yet tools designed for non-IDSOs continue to be applied to them. Method: This review examines the Risk Matrix 2000, a static risk assessment tool that is designed to assess risk of sexual and violent recidivism. Its validity, reliability and practical utility for sex offenders with intellectual disabilities are explored. Results: Appraisal of this tool indicates that although empirical support exists for its use with sex offenders without intellectual disability, the Risk Matrix 2000 is not established as reliable or valid for use with IDSOs. Although less extensively empirically examined than the Risk Matrix 2000, the ARMIDILO-S, which incorporates protective factors as well as risk factors, shows superior predictive validity to the Risk Matrix 2000 with IDSOs and its use may therefore be more ethically defensible. Specific testing of actuarial (and other types) of tools is required on IDSOs. Conclusions: Further empirical support is needed to support the use of the Risk Matrix 2000 with IDSOs, and other risk assessment tools that are designed specifically for this subgroup of sex offenders may be more appropriate to use. The Risk Matrix 2000 and its resulting risk groups should not be relied upon for IDSOs and its continued use on this subgroup is questionable. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Employing people with disabilities: a preliminary assessment of a start-up Initiative

Authors:
YAMATANI Hide, TEIXEIRA Samantha, McDONOUGH Kathleen
Journal article citation:
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(8), 2015, pp.830-842.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

A major city in Pennsylvania initiated the Career Transition Liaison Project, the first of its kind in the region. Based on a mixed method evaluation design, the pilot study findings show that employing youth with disabilities requires certain accommodations and an initial investment in training, but these investments pay off for the employer. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Service with a smile

Author:
PARTON Dan
Journal article citation:
Learning Disability Today, 15(5), September/October 2015, pp.26-27.
Publisher:
Pavilion
Place of publication:
Hove

Reports on how an apprenticeship at a social enterprise cafe has given one young woman with learning disabilities the possibility of bright future in the catering industry. Apprentices working at the Unity Kitchen Cafe in London work in the cafe for a year in order to complete their NVQ Level 2 in catering. They then work with an employment advisor to help them move into paid employment. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

What is normal behaviour in persons with developmental disabilities?

Authors:
DOSEN Anton, De GROEF Johan
Journal article citation:
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 9(5), 2015, pp.284-294.
Publisher:
Emerald

Purpose: Annoying and bothersome behaviours among persons with developmental disabilities (DD) is a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, not all behaviour that is difficult to accept in its surroundings should be seen as abnormal or problem behaviour (PB). Some of these behaviours may be an expression of a person’s psychosocial needs and may be considered as adaptive and normal. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: Authors attempt to discuss relevant issues in persons with DD which have an impact on their behaviour, intending in this way to define criteria for a reliable differentiation between normal and abnormal behaviour and psychiatric disorders. Findings: Differentiating between normal and abnormal may be a difficult task for a professional treating persons with DD because of the lack of adequate criteria for such differentiation. The problem becomes even more complex when one attempts to differentiate between PB and psychiatric disorder. By approaching the subject from a developmental perspective and by determining the level of the person’s emotional development, insight in subjective person’s experiences was achieved. On the ground of a “good practice” the authors made schemata outlining criteria for differentiation between these constructs. Originality/value: The application of these schemata in the practice made it easier to establish appropriate diagnoses and was favourable for the planning of adequate treatment and support of persons with DD and mental health problems. (Publisher abstract)

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