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Journal article

Challenging behaviours: prevalence and topographies

Authors:
LOWE K., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(8), August 2007, pp.625-636.
Publisher:
Wiley

Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to identify people with challenging behaviour. Interviews were conducted with primary carers to gain data on identified individuals' characteristics and support. Measures designed for a similar study conducted in Manchester University were incorporated to allow direct comparison with earlier findings, together with standardized tools to assess adaptive behaviour and social impairment. In total, 4.5 (2.5–7.5) people per 10,000 population were rated as seriously challenging, representing 10% (5.5–16.8%) of the learning disability population; the most prevalent general form was other difficult/disruptive behaviour, with non-compliance being the most prevalent topography. The majority showed multiple behaviours and multiple topographies within each general behaviour category. Also identified were substantial numbers of additional people reported as presenting challenging behaviours at lower degrees of severity. Prevalence rates for seriously challenging behaviours were comparable to those reported in the earlier studies, thus confirming previous findings. The prevalence of less serious challenging behaviour also has major clinical significance and emphasizes the need for enhanced understanding and skills among personnel within primary- and secondary-tier health, education and social care services, and for strengthening the capacity of community teams to provide behavioural expertise.

Journal article

Symbols can improve the reading comprehension of adults with learning disabilities

Authors:
JONES F.W., LONG K., FINLAY W.M.L.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(7), July 2007, pp.545-550.
Publisher:
Wiley

This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adding symbols to written text can improve its comprehensibility for adults with learning disabilities. Nineteen adults with mild or borderline learning disabilities attempted to read four short passages of text, two of which had Widgit Rebus symbols added to them. Following each passage, they were asked questions to test their comprehension. A counterbalanced design was employed. Participants’ comprehension scores were significantly higher for the symbolized passages than the non-symbolized ones. It is concluded that adding symbols to written text can make comprehension easier for some adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities.

Journal article

A comparison of WAIS-R and WAIS-III in the lower IQ range: implications for learning disability diagnosis

Authors:
FITZGERALD Suzanne, GRAY Nicola S., SNOWDEN Robert J.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(4), July 2007, pp.323-330.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Whether the Flynn effect (the increase in the populations’ IQ over time) affects the IQ scores of people with learning disability or borderline learning disability remains unclear. The issue is important as the Flynn effect should alter the number of people eligible for health service resources. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) in individuals with learning disability or borderline learning disability was conducted. All participants completed the WAIS-R and the WAIS-III. Discrepancy scores were calculated for the Full Scale IQ score and the Verbal and Performance subscale scores. WAIS-III Full Scale scores were significantly lower by over 4 IQ points. Verbal and Performance Scale IQ scores were also significantly lower than the corresponding WAIS-R scores. The shift from WAIS-R to WAIS-III means that 66% more people meet criterion A for the diagnosis of learning disability and hence this has major resource implications for health service providers.

Journal article

Putting people at the heart of services

Author:
ROWAN Katie
Journal article citation:
Community Living, 20(3), February 2007, pp.10-11.
Publisher:
Hexagon Publishing

The author looks at supported volunteering which provides extra support to people with learning difficulties and other needs to enable them to work as volunteers. She draws on her experience at Nugent Care where she worked to set up and develop the Step Up supported volunteering project and the Connect Volunteer Friendship Scheme with older people with learning difficulties.

Journal article

A reflection on PostModernism and the transformation of failure in learning disability services within the independent public sector at the beginning of the 21st Century

Author:
DAY Steve
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(1), March 2007, pp.38-42.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

The author discusses the transformation of learning disability services in light of the postmodern world. He places the transformation of services for people with learning disability, within the context of a global market place. He argues that change in the construction and administration of both the National Health Service and Social Services has, and is, having a profound effect on the lives of people with learning disabilities. Those changes have come about, in part, due to a recognition of past failures. The author has worked in Learning Disability Services for 19 years, and has seen in that time British society slowly begin to recognize people with learning disabilities amongst its population. There is a creaking door opening for people with learning disabilities, providing them recognition within the PostModern construct of fragmented societies. It is argued that against such a backdrop there is a real chance of the failure to meet the needs of people with learning disabilities becoming transformed.

Book

Diagnostic manual - intellectual disability (DM-ID): a textbook of diagnosis of mental disorders in persons with intellectual disability

Authors:
FLETCHER Robert, et al, (eds.)
Publisher:
NADD Press
Publication year:
2007
Pagination:
552p.
Place of publication:
Kingston, NY

This diagnostic manual was developed by the National Association for the Dually Diagnosed (NADD), in association with the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It aims to facilitate a more accurate psychiatric diagnosis of people with Intellectual Disabilities.  Content includes a description of each psychiatric disorder, a summary of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, a review of the research and an evaluation of the strength of evidence supporting the literature conclusions.

Digital Media

Would you complain?

Authors:
ONE TO ONE PLUS, TOWER HAMLETS. Community Learning Disability Service
Publisher:
Inspired Services
Publication year:
2007
Pagination:
(28 mins.), DVD, booklet
Place of publication:
Newmarket

Picture yourself in a café; you find a worm in your burger. Would you complain? Of course you would! Picture yourself in your own home; your support worker is not listening to you or your needs. Would you complain? Everyone has the right to complain, but it’s not always easy and few people with learning disabilities do. Many people do not know that complaining can have a positive outcome. This is what a group of people with learning difficulties from Tower Hamlets set out to show in their new video complaints pack. This pack includes a DVD and supporters notes which is designed for groups and it helps people, over several sessions, learn about complaints and explore what they feel about making them. The group launched the DVD at Learning Disability Today on 31st October 2007. The group is going to use the proceeds from sales to carry on their work and make sure that more people know about.

Book

The handbook of intellectual disability and clinical psychology practice

Editors:
CARR Alan, et al, (eds.)
Publisher:
Routledge
Publication year:
2007
Pagination:
965p.
Place of publication:
London

The book is divided into seven sections, which cover conceptual frameworks, assessment frameworks and intervention frameworks, and the specific problems that arise in infancy and early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Chapters combine discussion of the theoretical and empirical issues with practical considerations. The authors incorporate detailed practice descriptions throughout, which will allow clinicians to use the book as a step-by-step guide to clinical work. Practice exercises are also included where relevant to aid skills development.

Journal article

Correspondence between self-ratings and key-workers' ratings of depression in adults with mild learning disabilities

Authors:
GORDON Michael S., et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(4), November 2007, pp.491-495.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study assessed the association between self-ratings and key-worker ratings of depression in people with mild learning disabilities. The Zung Depression Scale was completed by 74 adults with mild learning disabilities and a modified version of the questionnaire was completed by two key-workers at two periods in time. The correlations between ratings of depression by key-workers were high and key-worker ratings correlated significantly with self-rating. The depression scores were found to be temporally stable. The findings suggest that proxy raters appear to be able to make reliable and valid judgements about other people's self-reported levels of depression.

Journal article

Explore community resources before creating your own

Author:
FISHER Katie
Journal article citation:
Community Living, 21(2), 2007, pp.12-13.
Publisher:
Hexagon Publishing

The author, a community access worker, explains how community access can work with people with learning disabilities and how it can relieve some of the problems and boundaries they face.

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