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Journal article

Supporting volunteering activities by adults with intellectual disabilities: an explorative qualitative study

Authors:
WICKI Monika T., MEIER Simon
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 13(4), 2016, p.320–326.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

A large number of adults with and without disabilities engage in volunteering activities, allowing them to meet new people, providing them with the opportunity to learn new skills, to build their confidence, and to contribute to society. However, in previous studies of volunteers with intellectual disabilities (ID), it has been shown that this group is rarely involved in volunteering. This study explores the challenges, opportunities, and support needs of such volunteers and develops a heuristic model to support volunteering by people with ID in Switzerland. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of six volunteers with ID. The analysis was based on reflexive grounded theory. Volunteering is one way in which people with ID can participate in society and receive recognition for their engagement. Basic needs, personal motivation, and social recognition are central for volunteers with ID. A heuristic model to support volunteering based on personal and social reasons of individuals with ID is developed. By receiving the appropriate support, people with ID can thus contribute by volunteering on the same terms as volunteers without disabilities. The present findings shed some light on ways to increase the rate of volunteering by people with ID. While the present model can help to identify the type of support appropriate for people with disabilities, future research should aim to verify the outcomes of this study in a larger sample. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Mild intellectual disability associated with a progeny of father-daughter incest: genetic and environmental considerations

Authors:
ANSERMET Francois, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(3), May 2010, pp.337-344.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

The case of a 34-year-old woman presenting a phenotype of mild intellectual disability is presented. The woman was the result of a pregnancy after her mother was sexually abused by her grandfather. It is noted that when considering an intellectual disability phenotype in an incest progeny, it is difficult to differentiate between the psychologically harmful impact of the incest on the child's development versus the genetic consequences on mental health. The article describes and discusses the familial situation and the genetic analysis of the patient. The authors conclude that the causality for the phenotype could not be determined, and that this case report illustrates the complexity of defining the causes of mild intellectual disability when the familial context is heavily detrimental.

Book

Sheltered employment in five member states of the Council of Europe: Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

Authors:
SAMOY Erik, WATERPLAS Lina
Publisher:
Council of Europe
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
67p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Strasbourg

Comparative study looking at the situation of sheltered employment in the twelve Member States of the European Union. The data for each country is grouped under the following headings: institutional context; target population; access to sheltered employment; characteristics of the people in sheltered employment; and a discussion of the topics currently under debate around sheltered employment in each country.

Journal article Full text available online for free

Focus on Europe: further education needed for people with mental handicap

Author:
SLUCKIN Alice
Journal article citation:
Practice: Social Work in Action, 1(1), 1987, pp.63-70.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis

Reports on some of the changes that have taken in four European countries and a comparison is made with some aspects of current British practice. It is now know that, given the right methods, even severely mentally handicapped people can be taught quite complex skills. Hence they should have access to further education, which has in the past been denied to them.

Journal article

Comparing residential programmes for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability: outcomes of challenging behaviour and quality of life

Authors:
GERBER F., et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(9), September 2011, pp.918-932.
Publisher:
Wiley

Behavioural challenges have limited research using quality of life (QoL) as a treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). This study combine QoL measures and objective observations of challenging behaviours (CB) to evaluate changes in adults with ASD and ID treated in different residential programmes in Switzerland. The authors hypothesised that a decrease in CB would be related to an improved QoL. This 45-month study followed 31 adults with ASD and ID who had been integrated into two residential programmes Autism Programme with a Structured Method (PAMS) vs. traditional programme for ID (No-PAMS)] for 2–19 years. QoL [Quality of Life Inventory in a Residential Environment (IQVMR)] and severity of autistic features (Childhood Autism Rating Scales) were evaluated annually. CB, as measured by the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC), including stereotypic behaviour and inappropriate speech, were repeatedly assessed every 3 months. In the PAMS programme, stereotypic behaviour and inappropriate speech (ABC scores) significantly decreased, and the IQVMR total score increased; in contrast, in the No-PAMS group, ABC scores did not change and the IQVMR total score decreased. Further analysis partially confirmed that the PAMS programme had an effect on CB and that QoL improvement did not directly depend on the type of programme but on reducing CB as measured by the ABC.

Journal article

Self-efficacy and stress of staff managing challenging behaviours of people with learning disabilities

Author:
CUDRÉ-MAUROUX Annick
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), September 2011, pp.181-189.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Professional caregivers have been shown to experience high levels of stress when they have to face challenging behaviours in children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. This short study explored the relationship between self-efficacy and stressful situations through a qualitative research design. Semi-structured interviews were help with a small number of professional caregivers. Theoretical indicators of self-efficacy regarding particular stress stages were identified in a categorical analysis. A case study method was used to promote ecological data and enhance understanding of various influencing factors. Findings suggest the importance of adequate measures of self-efficacy regarding its usage in varying contexts. Different forms of self-efficacy related to the coping process for professional caregivers are suggested. Implications for practice are discussed.

Journal article

Exploring perceptions of family relationships by individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders

Authors:
WIDMER Eric D., KEMPF-CONSTANTIN Nadine L., CARMINATI Giuliana Galli
Journal article citation:
Families in Society, 91(4), October 2010, pp.378-384.
Publisher:
The Alliance for Children and Families

This article explores the ways in which individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders perceive their family relationships compared with the perceptions of those relationships by family members. The study used social network methods as it focused on perceptions of a large number of family relationships of individuals with ID rather than specific family dyads. The participants were 17 individuals with mild ID and psychiatric disorders who were patients at the University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. Each participant was interviewed and completed the Family Network questionnaire. The first family member that they cited was also interviewed. A third group, a comparison nonclinical group of 17 individuals, matched for age and sex with the clinical group were also interviewed. The results showed that the clinical group, compared with comparison nonclinical individuals, perceived their family as presenting less emotional support and fewer influential relationships, but the same number of conflict relationships. For the most part, the interviews with family members confirmed these results, confirming that the patients had a very limited set of supportive relationships. However, there were some significant differences in the perceptions between patients and their family members, with family members perceiving additional relationships that the patient did not perceive. The importance of these findings for research on family relationships of individuals with ID is discussed.

Journal article

Staff attributions about challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities and transactional stress process: a qualitative study

Author:
CUDRE-MAUROUX A.
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(1), January 2010, pp.26-39.
Publisher:
Wiley

It has been suggested that staff explanations about challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities may impact on staff responses to such behaviour as well as on the staff and clients’ well-being. These beliefs may also impede the implementation of effective behavioural interventions. However, to date research has demonstrated only a weak empirical association between attributions, emotions and behaviours. This study investigated these relationships within a broader framework including the transactional stress model of Lazarus and Folkman. It also looked at the level of congruence with Weiner’s model of helping behaviour. A case study method, using semi-structured interviews, was adopted to cover a full caregiver’s adaptive sequence when facing challenging behaviour. Data was collected from ten subjects (in ten contextualised situations) from three social institutions for people with ID in Switzerland. The results revealed three issues: that Weiner's model is too restrictive to explain the complexity of contextualised encounters; a need to differentiate types of attributions within a temporal perspective; and the coping role of attributions needs to be considered. The author concludes that there is a need to extend the research on attribution and it needs to be set within ecological contexts and include coping behaviour as an aspect of staff attributions of challenging behaviours.

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