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Journal article

A critical comparison of welfare states and their relevance to people with an intellectual disability

Authors:
de CHENU Linda, DAEHLEN Dag, TAH Jude
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 20(4), 2016, pp.397-415.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

This article compares the welfare services for adults with an intellectual disability in three European countries: England, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the comparison is to develop an understanding of the welfare state and institutional contexts of the country-specific policies and to develop a critical analysis through a comparative method based on selected secondary literature. Typological frameworks of European welfare states are applied as analytic frameworks to enable comparison between the countries. It is argued that there are international policy developments but these are shaped at a national level by different types of welfare states and histories. Through a comparison of similarities and differences, the article suggests that international policy ideas that impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities are mediated by different types of welfare states and institutions.

Journal article

Women and men with intellectual disabilities who sell or trade sex: voices from the professionals

Authors:
KUOSMANEN Jari, STARKE Mikaela
Journal article citation:
Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 10(3), July 2011, pp.129-149.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Philadelphia, USA

In this study undertaken in Sweden, the authors explored the knowledge and perceptions of professionals working in the field about people with intellectual disabilities who sell or exchange sexual services. The article introduces the study and includes a brief overview of the background to disability and prostitution in Swedish legislation. 19 professionals from various types of agencies and specialisations (including social workers, psychologists, special education teachers, support volunteers, and care workers) were recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. The discussions were transcribed and analysed, and the article presents and discusses the results, with examples from the focus groups. Different motives and contributing factors were identified for the behaviour, and 2 distinct discourses emerged: people with intellectual disabilities who traded sexual favours were presented as either conscious and autonomous agents or unaware and exploited victims.

Journal article

Patterns of time processing ability in children with and without developmental disabilities

Authors:
JANESLATT Gunnel, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(3), May 2010, pp.250-262.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Children with developmental disabilities, such as intellectual disability or autism, are often reported to have problems in understanding and managing time. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are different patterns in time processing ability in children with disabilities and typically developing children. It also investigated whether the problems described are diagnosis specific or reflect differences in age. The 3 subcategories of time processing ability, time perception, time orientation, and time management, were all investigated. Using a cross-sectional design, this study investigated if there were different patterns of time processing ability in 5- to 10-year-old children, 77 of which had disabilities and 89 of which did not. Altogether, 5 different clusters of levels of time processing ability were identified. The results indicated that the patterns of time processing ability mainly follow the chronological age of children without disabilities. Daily time management (as estimated by the parents) and children's self-rated autonomy differed between clusters and was related to time processing ability. The article concludes that the level of time processing ability seems to be a more valid overall base than the type of diagnosis for the planning of interventions in daily time management.

Journal article

Public special services provided to people with intellectual disabilities in Sweden: a life-span perspective

Author:
UMB-CARLSSON Oie
Journal article citation:
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 5(4), December 2008, pp.237-244.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This study describes public special services, support, and health care provided to an administratively defined county sample of people with intellectual disabilities from early childhood to adult age. Comparisons were made on the variables year of birth, sex, and assessed level of intellectual disabilities in 1974. Information was obtained from case files and included the period from year of birth of the participants (between 1959 and 1974) to 2005. All participants were provided public special services, support, and health care either periodically or throughout the study period. Changes in legislation were reflected in the type of services, support, and health care provided to the target group. Type and amount of special services and support were related to year of birth. Only a few differences were related to sex and level of intellectual disabilities. These results indicate that public special services, support, and health care provided to people with intellectual disabilities reflect disability policy, legislation, and professional attitudes over different periods. It is suggested that measures were tailored to meet general needs considered to be shared by all people with intellectual disabilities rather than individual choices and wishes. The interaction among professionals emerged only to a limited extent. However, deficient information in the case files does not imply absence of contact between professional groups, but, if continuity in services, support, and health care is to be attained, significant improvement in documentation is required.

Journal article

Place in Europe

Author:
HOPKINS Graham
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 27.01.05, 2005, pp.46-47.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

Phil Madden, Director of service development at the Home Farm Trust, describes the organisations involvement in a one year project 'Families In' funded by the European Commission. The project involved partners from Sweden, Finland, Spain, Belgium and Hungary. He describes the challenges and rewards of the project.

Book

The beliefs, values and principles of self-advocacy

Author:
INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE OF SOCIETIES FOR PERSONS WITH MENTAL HANDICAP
Publisher:
Brookline Books
Publication year:
1996
Pagination:
48p.
Place of publication:
Cambridge, MA

Booklet setting out values and principles for self-advocacy. Also contains sections on: support and the role of a support person; empowerment; institutions; and stories of good practice from around the world.

Book

New voices: self-advocacy by people with disabilities

Editors:
DYBWAD Gunnar, BERSANI Hank Jr.
Publisher:
Brookline Books
Publication year:
1996
Pagination:
286p.
Place of publication:
Cambridge, MA

Collection of papers on self advocacy by people with developmental disabilities, many by self advocates themselves. Provides an historical background to the development of the self advocacy movement in the Western world. Examines the current state of self advocacy activities, and concludes by projecting the movement's future course as it continues to be accelerate worldwide amongst people with learning difficulties.

Journal article

The Swedish experience

Author:
MADDEN P.
Journal article citation:
Health Service Journal, 30.6.88, 1988, pp.736-737.
Publisher:
Emap Healthcare

Focuses on the role of the state, and general trends such as decentralisation and deinstitutionalisation in Sweden.

Journal article

Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder

Authors:
HIRVIKOSKI Tatja, et al
Journal article citation:
British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(3), 2016, pp.232-238.
Publisher:
Royal College of Psychiatrists

Background: Mortality has been suggested to be increased in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aims: To examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality in ASD, as well as investigate moderating role of gender and intellectual ability. Method: Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for a population-based cohort of ASD probands (n = 27 122, diagnosed between 1987 and 2009) compared with gender-, age- and county of residence-matched controls (n = 2 672 185). Results: During the observed period, 24 358 (0.91%) individuals in the general population died, whereas the corresponding figure for individuals with ASD was 706 (2.60%; OR = 2.56; 95% CI 2.38–2.76). Cause-specific analyses showed elevated mortality in ASD for almost all analysed diagnostic categories. Mortality and patterns for cause-specific mortality were partly moderated by gender and general intellectual ability. Conclusions: Premature mortality was markedly increased in ASD owing to a multitude of medical conditions. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

‘More time for what?’ Exploring intersecting notions of gender, work, age and leisure time among people with cognitive disabilities

Authors:
LOVGREN Veronica, ROSQVIST Hanna Berilsdotter
Journal article citation:
International Journal of Social Welfare, 24(3), 2015, pp.263-272.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

This article explores intersecting notions of leisure among middle-aged people with intellectual disabilities in the setting of the Swedish welfare state. The participants are recipients of long-term disability services and have experienced the changing ideological frameworks of the welfare effort, which has recently focused on normalisation, inclusion and participation. Structured activities are arranged by disability services in order to normalise living conditions and provide recreation for disabled people. However, the range of activities is constrained by financial resources, by notions of gender and age and by an institutionalised emphasis on the work ethic – leading to constructions of leisure partly as ‘time beside’ where ‘free time’ activities should not interfere with the duties of the working week. The participants' limited resources and their lack of a strong voice limit their ability to demand their legal rights and leave many of them with ‘too much time with too little to do’. (Publisher abstract)

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