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Journal article Full text available online for free

Qualities in friendship: within an outside perspective: definitions expressed by adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities

Author:
SIGSTAD Hanne Marie Hoybraten
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 21(1), 2017, pp.20-39.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

Background: This study examined how adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities define qualities of friendship and discussed the extent to which these definitions adhere to established definitions of close friendship. Materials and Methods: The study was based on qualitative interviews with 11 adolescents in secondary school. The interviews were supplemented with information from six parents. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify themes. Results: Qualities of friendship were categorised as mutual preference, mutual enjoyment, shared interactions, care, mutual trust and bonding. The criteria for close friendship seem to be fulfilled, albeit to a moderate degree. Closeness and reciprocity appear to be significant in this study, although these features have been considered less relevant within this target group in previous research. Conclusions: Differences in definitions may explain divergent results compared with other studies, and the need to achieve equivalence in friendship may be another. (Edited publisher abstract)

Journal article

A critical comparison of welfare states and their relevance to people with an intellectual disability

Authors:
de CHENU Linda, DAEHLEN Dag, TAH Jude
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 20(4), 2016, pp.397-415.
Publisher:
Sage
Place of publication:
London

This article compares the welfare services for adults with an intellectual disability in three European countries: England, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the comparison is to develop an understanding of the welfare state and institutional contexts of the country-specific policies and to develop a critical analysis through a comparative method based on selected secondary literature. Typological frameworks of European welfare states are applied as analytic frameworks to enable comparison between the countries. It is argued that there are international policy developments but these are shaped at a national level by different types of welfare states and histories. Through a comparison of similarities and differences, the article suggests that international policy ideas that impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities are mediated by different types of welfare states and institutions.

Journal article Full text available online for free

The rights of spring

Author:
HUTCHINSON Gunn Strand
Journal article citation:
Community Care, 8.5.03, 2003, p.43.
Publisher:
Reed Business Information

For the past 3 years people with learning difficulties in a town in Norway have marched on May Day to protest against their lack of employment rights. Looks at the reasons for the march.

Journal article

Vignette selection for ethical reflections: a selection procedure for vignettes to investigate staff reflections on the ethical challenges in interaction with people with intellectual disabilities

Authors:
ØSTBY May, BJØRKLY Stål
Journal article citation:
Ethics and Social Welfare, 5(3), 2011, pp.277-295.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Place of publication:
Abingdon

Care staff in Norway normally work in the private homes of people with intellectual disabilities. Staff experience ethical challenges daily in their interactions with their clients. The aim of this paper is to introduce a vignette validation procedure for selection of practice-close vignettes that can be used to elicit and explore staff reflections on ethical challenges in their work. Twenty staff participants were recruited from different municipalities in one county of Norway. To develop vignettes with good internal validity, the validation process consisted of: a field study to identify situations to be included as vignettes; a six-step categorization process to select vignettes with good internal validity; transforming the situations into vignettes; including removal of elements that were too leading or constricting; testing the familiarity and relevance of the preliminary sample of vignettes; final selection of four vignettes to be included in the investigation; and a validation of the four vignettes’ familiarity and practical relevance as ethical challenges by the final sample of interviewees. Preliminary experience indicates that the validation procedure enhanced the selection of vignettes to elicit staff perceptions and reflections on daily ethical challenges.

Journal article

Learning difficulties and academic competence among children in contact with the child welfare system

Authors:
IVERSEN Anette C., et al
Journal article citation:
Child and Family Social Work, 15(3), August 2010, pp.307-314.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Children who have been in the welfare system tend to have poor social and health outcomes as adults. The aim of this study was to examine learning difficulties, as well as academic competence, among children in contact with child welfare service, and to compare this group to their same-age peers. The data stem from a population-based study of children in all elementary schools in Bergen. The participants consisted of 4114 children in fifth to seventh grade, of whom 101 were in contact with child welfare services. Information on learning difficulties and academic competence was obtained through questionnaires to teachers and parents/caregivers. As expected, there were significantly more children with learning difficulties in the child welfare group than the peer group; 12% of child welfare clients had general learning difficulties compared to only 0.4% of their peers, and 31% had specific learning difficulties in relation to mathematics or reading and writing, compared to 10% of their peers. The majority of child welfare children received assistance from pedagogical–psychological services. While half the child welfare client without general learning disability had low academic competence, there were also 15% who had high academic competence. The results show that although many of the children in contact with child welfare service have learning difficulties, there is also heterogeneity and potential for academic achievement.

Journal article

Physical interventions and aversive techniques in relation to people with learning disabilities in Norway

Authors:
ROED Ole Tom, SYSE Aslak
Journal article citation:
Journal of Adult Protection, 4(1), February 2002, pp.25-32.
Publisher:
Emerald

Behaviour programmes containing aversive elements came under scrutiny in Norway following the de-institutionalisation of people with learning disabilities in the early nineties. A special act was introduced to limit and regulate the need for such measure. The article describes the situation prior to the act and outlines the arguments used in favour of and against it. The authors also report on a board specially appointed to evaluate the act.

Book

Sheltered employment in five member states of the Council of Europe: Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

Authors:
SAMOY Erik, WATERPLAS Lina
Publisher:
Council of Europe
Publication year:
1997
Pagination:
67p.,bibliogs.
Place of publication:
Strasbourg

Comparative study looking at the situation of sheltered employment in the twelve Member States of the European Union. The data for each country is grouped under the following headings: institutional context; target population; access to sheltered employment; characteristics of the people in sheltered employment; and a discussion of the topics currently under debate around sheltered employment in each country.

Journal article

Prevalence, trends and custody among children of parents with intellectual disabilities in Norway

Authors:
TOSSEBRO Jan, et al
Journal article citation:
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(3), 2017, p.533–542.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell

Background: This study addresses children of parents with intellectual disability in Norway. The aim was to examine: (i) the impact of definitions of intellectual disability on prevalence, (ii) whether numbers were increasing, (iii) the prevalence of motherhood and fatherhood and (iv) rates of lost custody. Methods: Analyses of national registers (n = 30 834) and mapping in four municipalities (n = 85). Results: 0.19% of all children had parents with recorded intellectual disability, increasing to 0.87% with wider inclusion criteria. The number of children born to parents with intellectual disability has been declining since the mid-1980s. The proportion of mothers with intellectual disability was twice that of fathers. Parental custody was revoked for 30–50% of children, with single mothers being at particular risk. Parents with intellectual disability accounted for 20–25% of all custody cases. Conclusions: The results show that prevalence depends on the definition of intellectual disability. The decreasing number of children and the need for development of specially adapted family supports are discussed. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Inclusion of persons with disabilities in mainstream employment: is it really all about the money? A case study of four large companies in Norway and Sweden

Authors:
KUZNETSOVA Yuliya, YALCIN Betul
Journal article citation:
Disability and Society, 32(2), 2017, pp.233-253.
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis,

This study investigates how large companies respond to public policy measures to ensure the inclusion of persons with disabilities in mainstream employment based on a case study of four companies in Norway and Sweden. The qualitative interviews, which were conducted with company managers, government representatives in Norway, and non-governmental organisations in Sweden, revealed three overarching themes: (1) ‘legitimacy’, (2) ‘financial interests’ and (3) ‘non-financial support’. The results indicate a more proactive response from the Swedish companies, especially regarding persons with intellectual and learning difficulties. The Norwegian companies reveal a high commitment to their own employees. These findings cannot be explained solely using neo-institutional theory, which holds that organisations demonstrate ‘conformity with powerful institutional myths to strengthen support and secure survival'. The results indicate that inclusive targeted corporate policies and programmes, advisory support, and the agency and value choices of the management might matter more. (Publisher abstract)

Journal article

Significance of friendship for quality of life in adolescents with mild intellectual disability: a parental perspective

Author:
SIGSTAD Hanne Marie Hoybraten
Journal article citation:
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 41(4), 2016, pp.289-298.
Publisher:
Informa Healthcare

Background: The present study examined how parents assess the significance of friendship for quality of life in adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Method The study was based on qualitative semistructured interviews with 6 mothers. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify the themes. Results: The mothers compared their children with typically developing peers to examine to what extent their children’s relationships were working optimally. Social support and a better understanding of friendship were found to be essential conditions for establishing friendship. Development of independence and a sense of belonging with others were factors that were reported to be highly important in determining quality of life outcomes for their adolescent children. Conclusions: From a parental view, friendship in adolescents with mild intellectual disability seems to be highly important for their quality of life in the long term. However, well-functioning and lasting friendship for this group of people appears to require substantially more effort for their parents than for typically developing offspring. (Publisher abstract)

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